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Full text of "The function of the state university; being the proceedings of the inauguration of Edward Kidder Graham as president of the University of North Carolina"

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tEte  Wlmtiueitv  of  Jtottt)  Carolina 





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APRIL,  1915 

By  transfer 
The  tmite  House. 




at  eleven  o'clock 
Governor  Locke  Craig,  presiding 


Edward  Rondthaler 

Bishop  of  the  Moravian  Church 


Abbott  Lawrence  Loweli, 
President  of  Harvard  University 

Frank  Johnson   Goodnow 
President  of  Johns  Hopkins  University 

Edwin  Anderson  Alderman 
President  of  the  University  of  Virginia 

John  Huston  Finley 
President  of  the  University  of  the  State  of  New  York 


Francis  Preston  Venable 
Venable  Professor  of  Chemistry 


Walter  Clark 
Chief  Justice  of  the  Supreme  Court  of  North  Carolina 


Locke  Craig 
Governor  of  North  Carolina 

tKfje  jf unction  of  tfie  ^tate  Winihtvsiity 


Edward  Kidder  Graham 
President  of  the  University  of  North  Carolina 


state  universities 

George  Hutcheson  Denny 

President  of  the  University  of  Alabama 


WiEEiAM  Joseph  Martin 
President  of  Davidson  College 

the  pubeic  schooes 

James  Yadkin  Joyner 

Superintendent  of  Public  Instruction 

the  aeumni 

George  Stephens 
Of  the  Class  of  1896 

the  student  body 

Thomas  Caeeendine  Boushaee 
Of  the  Class  of  1915 

the  facuety 

Lucius  Poek  McGehee 

Dean  of  the  School  of  Law 


(The  audience  is  requested  to  rise  and  join  in  the  singing) 

Bishop  Edward  RondthaeEr 


(The   audience   is   requested    to   stand   while   the   academic 
procession  is  passing  out) 

^te  Wini\}tv^ity  of  Movtf)  Carolina 


Profe;ssor  Joseph  Hyde  Pratt,  Ph.  D. 
Grand   Marshal 




To  assemble  at  the  Law  Building  at  ten  o'clock 

T.  C.  Linn,  '16 


J.  M.  TuRBYFiLL,  President 


Oscar  LEach,  President 


George  C.  SinglETary,  President 

EIRST  year  medical  CLASS 

H.  B.  Wadsworth,  President 


Roger  McDuFfie,  President 

THE    college 

McDaniEl  Lewis,  President 


E.  L.  Mackie,  President 


G.  C.  TennEnt,  President 

8  Wbt  Jf  unction  of  tfie  ^tate  Winibtx&itp 


the;   CI.ASS   OF    1898 

To  assemble  at  the  University  Inn  at  quarter  past  ten  o'clock 

Richard  S.  Busbee;,  '98 



AIvUMNI   OF   the;   university   of   north   CAROI.INA 

To  assemble  at  the  University  Inn  at  quarter  past  ten  o'clock 

ALBERT  L.  Cox,  '04 


county   and    city    SUPERINTENDENTS    OF   NORTH    CARO- 



To  assemble  in  the  Geological  Laboratory  in  New  East  Build- 
ing at  quarter  past  ten  o'clock 
Professor  N.  W.  Wai,ke;r,  B.  A, 



To  assemble  in  the  lecture  room  in  Chemistry  Hall  at  quarter 

past  ten  o'clock 

Professor  Lee  Raper,  Ph.  D. 


^fje  Wini\ittiitp  of  i^ortf)  Carolina  9 



To  assemble  in  the  office  of  the  Business  Manager  in  Alumni 
Building  at  quarter  past  ten  o'clock 

Professor  James  M.  Bei.l,  Ph.  D. 




To  assemble  at  the  Old  East  Building  at  ten  o'clock 

D.   L.   Seckinger,   President  Graduate   School 


George   EuTsi<Er,    President    Senior    Class 




To  assemble  in  the  Treasurer's  office  in  the  Alumni  Building 

at  quarter  past  ten  o'clock 

Professor  P.  H.  Winston 


Walter  Ceark,  LL.  D.,  Chief  Justice 
Peatt  D.  Waeker,  LL.  D.,  Associate  Justice 
WiEEiAM  A.  Hoke,  LL.  D.,  Associate  Justice 
George  H.  Brown,  LL.  D.,  Associate  Justice 
WiEEiAM  R.  AeeEN,  LL.  D.,  Associate  Justice 

10  Wi^t  Jfunttion  of  tte  ^tate  tinibersfitp 



To  assemble  in  the  Physics  lecture  room  in  Alumni  Building 
at  quarter  past  ten  o'clock 

Prope;ssor  Parker  Haywood  Dagge;tt^  B.  S. 

American  Philosophical  Society 

Processor  Walter  LeConte  Stevens,  Ph.  D. 
Academy  of   Natural  Sciences   of   Philadelphia 

ProEessor  H.  V.  Wilson,  Ph.  D. 
New  York  Academy  of  Sciences 

Proeessor  Charles  BaskErvillE,  Ph.  D. 
Boston  Society  of  Natural  History 

Professor  Collier  Cobb,  M.  A. 
Smithsonian  Institution 

Proeessor  Mitchell  Carroll,  Ph.  D. 
American  Society  of  Civil  Engineers 

Dean  David  Carlisle  Humphreys,  C.  E. 
American  Philological  Association 

Proeessor  Ashton  Waugh  McWhorter,  Ph.  D. 
National  Education  Association  of  the  United  States 

Frank  M.  Harper,  M.  A. 
American  Institute  of  Mining  Engineers 

Professor  Joseph  Hyde  Pratt,  Ph.  D. 
American  Chemical  Society 

Professor  W.  Lash  Miller,  Ph.D. 
American  Academy  of  Medicine 

Charles  M.  Hazen,  M.  D. 
American  Bar  Association 

P.   A.   WiLLCOX 

Cfje  Wini\}txiitp  of  Movtf)  Carolina  ii 

Archaeological  Institute  of  America 

Professor  Mitchell  Carroll,  Ph.  D. 
American  Society  of  Mechanical  Engineers 

Park  A.  Dallis,  Honorary  Vice-President 
American  Forestry  Association 

J.  S.  Holmes,  M.  F. 
North  Carolina  Teachers'  Assembly 

Superintendent  Frank  M.  Harper,  M.  A. 
Modern  Language  Association  of  America 

Professor  C.  Alphonso  Smith,  Ph.  D.,  LL.  D. 
American  Historical  Association 

Professor  William  Kenneth  Boyd,  Ph.  D. 
American  Institute  of  Electrical  Engineers 

Professor  Parker  Haywood  Daggett,  B.  S. 
American  Economic  Association 

Professor  William  H.  Glasson,  Ph.  D. 
Geological  Society  of  America 

Professor  Joseph  Hyde  Pratt,  Ph.  D. 
American  Folk  Lore  Society 

Professor  F.  C.  Brown,  Ph.  D. 
New  York  Academy  of  Political  Science 

Professor  William  H.  Glasson,  Ph.  D. 
American  Psychological  Association 

Professor  Edward  Franklin  Buchner,  Ph.D. 
American  Mathematical  Society 

Professor  William  Holding  Echols,  B.  S.,  C.  E. 
Washington  Academy  of  Sciences 

Professor  Mitchell  Carroll,  Ph. . 
North  Carolina  Academy  of  Science 

Professor  J.  J.  Wolfe,  Ph.  D. 
American  Society  of  Zoologists 

Professor  John  Irving  Hamaker,  Ph.  D. 

12  tKfje  Jf unction  of  tf)e  B>tatt  Mnihtv^itp 

General  Education  Board 

Edwin  Anderson  Ai^derman,  D.  C.  L.,  LL.  D. 
Carnegie  Foundation  for  the  Advancement  of  Teaching 

Ceyde  Bowman  Furst,  M.  A.  ,Litt.  D.,  Secretary- 
Federation  of  American  Societies  for  Experimental  Biology 

Proeessor  Theodore  Hough,  Ph.  D. 
Illuminating  Engineering  Society 

Professor  Wieeiam  Hand  Brown,  Jr.,  B.  A. 



To  assemble  in  the  Physics  Laiboratory  in  Alumni  Building 
at  quarter  past  ten  o'clock 

Professor  Charees  H.  Herty,  Ph.  D. 
Harvard  University 

President  Abbott  Lawrence  Loweee,  LL.  D, 
William  and  Mary  College 

Professor  R.  M.  Crawford,  M.  A. 
Yale  University 

Charees  J.  Harris,  Alumnus 
University  of  Pennsylvania 

Hubert  AsheEy  Royster,  M.  D.,  Alumnus 
Princeton  University 

John  L.  Caedweee,  M.  A.,  LL.  D.,  Alumnus 
Columbia  University 

Dean  Frederick  J.  E.  Woodbridge,  M.  A.,  LL.  D. 

Professor  George  B.  Pegram,  Ph.  D. 
Rutgers  College 

President  Wieeiam  H.  S.  Demarest,  D.  D.,  LL.  D. 
Dartmouth  College 

Professor  H.  W.  Chase,  Ph.  D.,  Alumnus 

tirije  ^Knibergitj)  of  i^ortfj  Carolina  i3 

Georgetown  University 

Clement  Manly,  Alumnus 

Salem  College 

President  H.  E.  RonthalEr,  M.  A.,  B.  D.,  D.  D. 

Washington  and  Lee  University 

President  Henry  Louis  Smith,  LL.  D. 
Hampden-Sidney  College 

Professor  Ashton  Waugh  McWhorter,  Ph.  D. 
University  of  the  State  of  New  York 

President  John  FinlEy,  M.  A.,  LL.  D. 
St.  Johns  College 

President  Thomas  Fell,  Ph.  D.,  D.  C.  L.,  LL.  D. 
University  of  Pittsburg 

Chancellor  Samuel  B.  McCormick,  D.  D.,  LL.  D. 
University  of  Vermont 

A.  L.  Johnson,  Alumnus 

Williams  College 

Charles  Russell  Brewer,  B.  A.,  Alumnus 

University  of  Georgia 

Harry  Hodgson,  M.  A.,  Trustee 

University    of    South    Carolina 

President  William  Spencer  Currell,  Ph.  D. 
Princeton  Theological  Seminary 

C.  G.  VardEll,  D.  D.,  Alumnus 

University  of  Virginia 

President  Edwin  A.  Alderman,  D.  C.  L.,  LL.  D. 

George  Washington  University 

Professor  Mitchell  Carroll,  Ph.  D. 

Amherst  College 

Reverend  Edgar  Hunt  Goold,  B.  A.,  Alumnus 

Trinity  College  (Conn.) 

Bishop  Jos.  B.  Cheshire,  M.  A.,  D.  D.,  Alumnus 

14  W\^t  Jfunction  of  tfje  ^tate  Wini\itv^it^ 

Jefferson  Medical  College 

Professor  John  H.  Gibbon,  M.  D. 
New  York  University 

Professor  Herman  HarrelIv  Horne,  Ph.  D. 
Wesleyan  University 

Professor  Karl  Pomeroy  Harrington,  M.  A. 

Reverend  Walter   Patten,  B.  A.,  Alumnus 
University  of  Alabama 

President  George  H.  Denny,  Ph.  D.,  LL.  D. 
Lafayette  College 

Jacob  Lott  Ludlow,  C.  E.,  M.  S.,  Alumnus 
Richmond  College 

President  F.  W.  Boatwright,  M.  A.,  LL.  D. 
Wake  Forest  College 

President  William  Louis  Poteat,  M.  A.,  LL.  D. 
Davidson  College 

President  William  Joseph  Martin,  Ph.  D. 
University  of  Michigan 

President  Robert  P.  Reade,  LL.  B.,  Alumnus 
Greensboro  College  for  Women 

President  Samuel  B.  Turrentine,  D.  D. 
Medical  College  of  Virginia 

Professor  J.  Allison  Hodges,  M.  D. 
Emory  and  Henry  College 

President  Charles  C.  Weaver,  Ph.  D. 
University  of  Missouri 

Professor  Harry  R.  Fulton,  M.  A.,  Alumnus 
St.  Mary's  School 

Reverend  George  W.  Lay,  B.  A.,  B.  D.,  Rector 
The  Citadel 

Colonel  O.  J.  Bond,  LL.  D.,  Superintendent 
Baylor  University 

Professor  L.  R.  Meadows,  B.  A.,  Alumnus 

tlTfie  Winihtx^itv  of  i^ortf)  Carolina  15 

State  (N.  C.)  School  for  the  Blind 

Joseph  E.  Pogue,  President  Board  of  Directors 

Beloit  College 

Professor  A.  S.  Wheeler,  Ph.  D.,  Alumnus 

The  College  of  the  City  of  New  York 

Proeessor  Charles  BaskervillE,  Ph.  D. 
University  of  Rochester 

Professor  James  H.  Haneord,  Ph.  D.,  Alumnus 
Oxford  College 

President  F.  P.  Hobgood,  M.  A. 
Northwestern  University 

Professor  Abram  Van  Epps  Young,  Ph.  B. 

Haverford  College 

Professor  C.  O.  Meredith,  Ph.  D.,  Alumnus 

Trinity  College   (N.  C.) 

President  William  Preston  Few,  Ph.  D.,  LL.  D. 

Wofford  College 

Professor  Daniel  A.  Dupree,  M.  A. 
Davenport  College 

President  J.  B.  Craven,  LL.  D. 
Queens  College 

Dean  Ella  Young 
Peace  Institute 

President  George  J.  Ramsey,  M.  A.,  LL.  D. 
Massachusetts  Institute  of  Technology 

Hugh  MacRae,  B.  S.,  Alumnus 
Swarthmore  College 

President  Joseph  Swain,  LL.  D. 
Cornell  University 

Professor  Wm.  H.  Glasson,  Ph.  D.,  Alumnus 
University  of  Maine 

Clinton  N.  Rackcliffe,  Alumnus 
University  of  Illinois 

President  Edmund  J.  James,  Ph.  D.,  LL.  D. 

16  tKlje  Jf unction  of  tfje  ^tate  Mni^itvsiitv 

Purdue  University 

Professor  H.  E.  SatterfiEIvD,  M.  E.,  Alumnus 
University  of  Cincinnati 

Dean  Emiue  Watts  McVea,  M.  A. 
Stevens  Institute  of  Technology 

Proeessor  Iv.  StrothEr  Randolph,  M.  E.,  Alumnus 
Smith  College 

Miss  Laura  D.  Gile,  M.  A.,  D.  C.  L.,  Alumna 
Vanderbilt  University 

Professor  Edwin  Mims,  Ph.  D. 

Reverend  Charles  W.  Byrd,  D.  D.,  Trustee 
Georgia  State  School  of  Agriculture 

Harry  Hodgson,  M.  A.,  Trustee 

Wellesley  College 

Mrs.  a.  S.  WheeeER,  B.  A.,  Alumna 
The  Johns  Hopkins  University 

President  Frank  J.  Goodnow,  M.  A.,  LL.  D. 
Bryn  Mawr  College 

Dean  Marion  Reieey,  B.  A. 
University  of  Texas 

Professor  William  Battle  Phillips,  Ph.  D. 
Mount  Holyoke  College 

Professor  Elizabeth  E.  Shearer,  B.  A.,  Alumna 
Clark  University 

Professor  Josiah  Morse,  Ph.  D. 
Winthrop  Normal  and  Industrial  College 

President  D.  B.  Johnson,  M.  A.,  EL.  D. 
Guilford  College 

President  Lewis  L.  Hobbs,  LL.  D. 
Georgia  School  of  Technology 

President  Kenneth  G.  Matheson,  M.  A. 
The  N.  C.  College  of  Agriculture  and  Mechanic  Arts 

President  Daniel  H.  Hill,  M.A.,  Litt.  D.,  LL.  D. 

Cfje  ®nibers;itp  of  Jtortft  Carolina  i7 

Elon  College 

Professor  E.  E.  Randolph,  Ph.  D. 

Converse  College 

President  Robert  P.  Pell,  Litt.  D. 

North  Carolina  State  Normal  and  Industrial  College 

President  J.  I.  Foust,  LL.  D. 

Dean  W.  C.  Smith,  Ph.  B. 
Lenoir  College 

President  R.  L.  Fritz,  M.  A.,  D.  D. 

Dean  W.  H.  Little,  M.  A. 
University  of  Chicago 

Professor  William  Albert  Nitze,  Ph.  D. 
Randolph-Macon  Woman's  College 

President  William  A.  Webb,  Litt.  D. 
Southern  Presbyterian  College 

President  C.  G  .Vardell,  D.  D. 
Elizabeth  College 

President  Charles  B.  King,  M.  A.,  D.  D. 

Meredith  College 

President  R.  T.  Vann,  D.  D. 
Presbyterian  Theological  Seminary 

President  Charles  R.  Hemphill,  Ph.  D.,  D.  D. 
Louisburg  College  for  Women 

IvEY  Allen,  Secretary 
Appalachian  Training  School 

Professor  Roy  M.  Brown,  B.  A. 

University  of  Florida 

Professor  Robert  N.  Wilson,  M.  S.,  Alumnus 

Virginia  State  Normal  School  at  Harrisburg 

Professor  John  W.  Wayland,  Ph.  D. 

East  Carolina  Teachers  Training  School 

President  Robert  Herring  Wright,  B.  S. 

18  W^t  Jf unction  of  tfje  ^tate  Winihtv^itp 

Caswell  Training  School 

Superintendent  C.  B.  McNairy,  M.  D. 
Rice  Institute 

President  Edgar  Ordeel  Lovett,  Ph.  D.,  LL.  D. 
Emory  University 

Dean  Peato  T.  Durham,  D.  D. 



To  assemble  in  the  Dean's  office  in  the  Alumni  Building  at 

quarter  past  ten  o'clock 

Dean  Marvin  Hendrix  Stacy,  M.  A. 



To  assemble  in  the  President's  Room  in  Alumni  Building  at 
quarter  past  ten  o'clock 

Proeessor  J.  G.  de  Roulhac  Hamieton,  Ph.  D. 

Kemp  p.  Battle,  M.A.,  LL.D. 
President  of  the  University  of  North  Carolina,  1876-1891 

George  T.  Winston,  M.  A.,  LL.  D. 
President  of  the  University  of  North  Carolina,  1891-1896 

Edwin  Anderson  Aederman,  D.  C.  L.,  LL.  D. 

President  of  the  University  of  Virginia 

President  of  the  University  of  North  Carolina,  1896-1900 

Francis  Preston  Venabee,  Ph.  D.,  D.  Sc,  LL.  D. 
President  of  the  University  of  North  Carolina,  1900-1914 

Edward  Kidder  Graham,  M.  A.,   D.  C.  L.,   LL.  D. 
President  of  the  University  of  North  Carolina 

tirtc  ^niber£fitj>  of  i^ortJi  Carolina  19 

Locke  Craig,  B.  A. 
Governor  of  North  Carolina 

JosEPHus  Daniels,  LL.  D. 
Secretary  of  the  Navy 

Abbott  Lawrence  Lowell,  LL.  D. 
President  of  Harvard  University 

Frank  J.  Goodnow,  M.  A.,  LL.  D. 
President  of  Johns  Hopkins  University 

John  H.  FinlEy,  M.  A.,  LL.  D. 
President  of  the   University  of  the  State  of  New  York 

Edward  Ronthaler,  D.  D. 
Bishop  of  the  Moravian  Church 

George  H.  Denny,  LL.  D. 
President  of  the  University  of  Alabama 

William  J.  Martin,  Ph.  D. 
President  of  Davidson  College 

James  Y.  Joyner,  LL.  D. 
Superintendent  of  Public  Instruction 

Lucius  Polk  McGehee,  B.  A.,  LL.  B. 
Dean  of  the  School  of  Law 

George  Stephens,  B.  A. 
Of  the  Class  of  1896 

Thomas  CallEndine  Boushall 
Of  the  Class  of  1915 


Wbt  Jf  unction  of  ti)e  ^tate  Winihtx^itp 


Archibald  Henderson 

Benehan  Cameron 
John  Sprunt  Hih 
James  A.  Gray,  Jr. 
H.  A.  London 
Francis  D.  Winston 
James  Sprunt 

Alvin  S.  Wheei<ER 


George  Stephens 
John  W.  Fries 
Jueian  S.  Carr 
John  A.  Parker 

A.  H.  ElvEER 

Victor  S.  Bryant 

Charles  Lee  Smith 

Joseph  Hyde  Pratt 
Andrew  H.  Patterson 
Louis  R.  Wilson 


J.  G.  DE  RouLHAc  Hamilton 
George  Howe 
Charles  H.  Herty 



Bishop  Edward  Rondthaler,  of  the  Moravian  Church 

Thou,  our  Father,  art  the  God  of  this  nation  and 
of  all  its  States.  Thou  dost  rule  over  our  people  and 
dost  provide  for  them;  and  from  time  to  time,  Thou 
hast  also  judged  them  for  their  sins,  but,  thus  far, 
Thou  hast  always  forgiven  us,  as  a  people,  for  the 
sake  of  the  Christ,  our  Savior. 

It  is  upon  Thy  blessing  that  all  our  institutions 
depend  and  especially  our  institutions  of  education 
and  of  learning.  We  thank  Thee  for  the  divine  favor, 
which,  from  the  outset,  has  rested  on  Chapel  Hill; 
for  its  distinguished  line  of  Presidents;  for  its  goodly 
succession  of  Professors;  for  the  modest  thorough- 
ness of  its  work,  and  especially  for  the  cordial  spirit 
which  has  ever  bound  student  and  instructor  together 
on  this  God-blessed  Hill. 

And  we  now  thank  Thee  for  the  man,  who  in  Thy 
providence,  has  been  chosen  to  the  Presidency  of  this 
great  University.  We  thank  Thee  for  those  special 
gifts  which  Thou  hast  so  evidently  bestowed  upon 
him  for  the  administration  of  his  great  task.  Bless 
him,  O  Lord,  today  and  through  the  many  years  (if 
it  please  Thee)  of  his  coming  service.  Bless  him  in 
body,  soul  and  spirit;  in  his  family,  as  well  as  in  his 
office.    Bless  him  in  bright  days  and  in  dark  days ;  bless 

22  Wbt  jFunction  of  tfje  B>tatt  Winihtv^itp 

him  in  every  incident  and  experience  of  his  noble  task; 
and  may  men  recognize  that  God  is  with  him  and  deal 
with  him  accordingly. 

Lay  Thy  benediction  on  this  memorable  occasion. 
Fill  it  with  the  spirit  of  reverence,  of  wisdom,  and  of 
mutual  good  will; — even  with  Thine  own  sweet  Holy 

Bless  the  Governor  of  our  State  who  presides  over 
this  assemblage;  the  member  of  the  National  Cabinet 
who  is  with  us  today;  the  Chief  Justice  and  other 
Judges  of  our  State ;  these  educational  heads  and  offi- 
cers from  far  and  near.  And  with  them,  do  Thou 
bless  the  great  body  of  residents  and  visitors  and  the 
many  former  and  present  students  who  now  throng 
this  Memorial  Hall.  May  our  meeting  and  fellowship 
with  one  another  be  an  occasion  of  new  impulse  in  us 
all  to  serve  Thee  and  our  fellowmen  with  the  very 
best  which  Thou  hast  given  us  to  be  and  to  have  and 
to  do. 

Hear  us,  in  this  our  united  prayer,  and  save  us,  our 
Father,  now  and  always,  through  Jesus  Christ,  Thy 
Son,  our  Lord,  to  whom  with  the  Father  and  the 
Spirit  be  all  the  praise.     Amen. 


Governor  Locke  Craig 

This  assemblage  is  worthy  of  its  purpose.  Great 
seats  of  learning  in  near  and  distant  states  have  sent 
their  presidents  with  messages  of  cheer  and  wisdom. 
Scholars  who  cultivate  ideals,  and  statesmen  who  con- 
struct policies  of  government,  have  come.    From  field 

Cfje  Wini\itx&itp  of  Movtf)  Carolina  23 

and  factory  and  busy  mart,  representative  men  and 
women  who  build  and  support  the  State  have  gath- 
ered today.  We  are  grateful  that  you  are  here.  We 
feel  the  encouragement  and  sustaining  power  of  your 
presence.  We  realize,  too,  that  throughout  our  com- 
monwealth the  pulsations  of  an  earnest  people  beat 
in  sympathy  with  us. 

We  come  to  dedicate  a  man  to  his  work.  It  demands 
the  energy  of  his  life  always  steadfast  to  the  high  obli- 
gation that  he  assumes.  The  task  calls  for  the  no- 
blest, for  it  is  the  keeping  and  the  development  of  this 
institution  sanctified  by  tradition,  potential  for  infinite 

On  this  day  of  the  inauguration  of  the  new  presi- 
dent, by  simple  ceremonial  we  devote  anew  this  Uni- 
versity to  the  service  of  men,  and  in  this  time  of 
militant  altruism  significant  of  human  destiny,  with 
victorious  assurance  we  give  the  forward  order.  We 
raise  him  to  this  exalted  place  because  he  is  worthy 
of  our  past,  equal  to  the  opportunities  of  the  future, 
and  because  he  will  lay  upon  the  altar  of  this  his  Alma 
Mater  a  priceless  sacrifice,  essential  in  every  scheme 
for  the  redemption  of  men:  a  pure  and  earnest  life. 

This  place  is  endeared  to  us  by  precious  memories. 
The  finest  spirit  of  the  past  is  perpetuated  here  and 
ever  evolves  unto  higher  and  broader  meaning. 
Through  all  our  generations  this  University  has  been 
to  us  a  well  of  strength  springing  up  into  perennial 
life.  She  enlarges  her  efforts  with  larger  opportuni- 
ties and  with  faith  and  courage  welcomes  increasing 

24  Wi^e  Jf  unction  of  ti^e  B>tatt  Mnihtxsiitv 

In  the  age  of  "the  steamship  and  the  railway,  the 
thoughts  that  shake  mankind,"  this  is  no  academy  of 
the  cloister,  nor  the  voice  for  every  wind  of  doctrine. 
This  University  has  been  and  will  be  the  exponent 
of  the  State's  power,  the  dynamics  of  the  State's  life. 
Amid  the  strife  and  confusion  of  our  aggressive  de- 
mocracy, she  shall  be  vitalized  by  the  currents  that  flow 
from  humanity  and  in  full  sympathy  strike  the  clear 
note  for  higher  aspiration  and  nobler  achievement. 
Sustained  by  all  the  people,  owning  allegiance  to  no 
man,  and  to  naught  but  God's  truth,  she  can  declare 
with  authority  the  creed  of  enduring  progress.  Reach- 
ing to  all  classes  and  conditions  she  shall  gather  unto 
her  bosom  the  robust  sons  of  the  State  to  send  them 
forth  as  ministers  of  a  splendid  destiny  "with  power 
in  this  dark  land  to  lighten  it,  and  power  on  this  dead 
world  to  make  it  live." 

The  man  and  the  hour  have  met.  We  are  opening  a 
new  chapter  in  the  history  of  the  University  of  North 


President  ABBorr  Lawrence  Lowell,  op  Harvard  University 

Among  those  who  have  met  to  celebrate  this  day,  I 
have  been  entrusted  with  the  difficult  task  of  speaking 
about  culture.  But  there  is  nothing  in  the  world  more 
elusive.  One  cannot  define  or  circumscribe  it,  for  it 
has  no  precise  bounds.  One  cannot  analyse  it,  for  its 
components  are  infinite.  One  cannot  describe  it,  for  it 
is  protean   in   shape.     An  attempt  to   encompass   its 

Cfje  Wini\itv^itv  of  i^ortfj  Carolina  25 

meaning  in  words  is  like  trying  to  seize  the  air  in  the 
hand,  when  one  finds  it  is  everywhere  except  within 
one's  grasp.  Culture  is  like  what  the  ancient  He- 
brews called  wisdom  in  that  it  has  no  fixed  habitation, 
but  is  all-pervading  and  imponderable  in  its  essence. 
Everyone  who  has  experienced  it  knows  something  of 
it ;  no  one  knows  it  all ;  to  no  two  people  does  it  wear 
exactly  the  same  aspect ;  and  yet  to  all  who  have 
in  it  any  share  it  appears  real,  substantial,  and  of 
measureless  worth. 

In  general,  the  term  is  used  to  denote  something  dis- 
tinct from  a  command  of  the  tools  of  one's  trade.  The 
lawyer,  for  example,  or  the  physician,  or  the  engineer, 
may  have  a  complete  mastery  of  all  the  technical  learn- 
ing of  his  profession  without  possessing  culture.  This 
is  evident  at  once  when  he  comes  into  contact  with  men 
of  other  professions.  He  may  talk  profoundly  about 
his  own  subject,  but  have  nothing  intellectual  in  com- 
mon with  the  other  men  if  he  lives  within  the  four 
walls  of  his  own  occupation  and  his  vision  is  strictly 
limited  thereby. 

That  so  large  a  part  of  general  conversation  in 
America  relates  to  the  weather,  to  politics,  and  to 
sport,  is  not  so  much  because  these  things  are  intrin- 
sically more  interesting  or  variable  than  in  other  coun- 
tries, as  because  they  are  among  the  few  subjects 
that  everyone  is  familiar  with  and  can  talk  about. 
Professional  learning  is,  no  doubt,  cultivating,  but 
standing  alone,  it  is  not  culture,  for  the  reason  that  it 
is  circumscribed  and  includes  only  a  narrow  part  of 
the  stream  of  human  thought.  For  a  lawyer  to  look 
through  the  microscope  of  a  man  of  science  increases 

26  tlTije  Jf  unction  of  t^e  ^tate  Wini\)tv^itv 

his  means  of  culture,  for  it  broadens  his  ideas  by  re- 
veaHng  to  his  sight  things  before  unknown.  But  the 
scientific  man  who  can  see  only  through  his  microscope 
has  a  very  restricted  vision  of  the  world;  and  the 
same  thing  is  true  of  every  pursuit  when  restricted 
to  its  own  limited  field.  When  Charles  Darwin  said 
that  in  his  later  life  he  lost  interest  in  almost  every- 
thing except  the  pursuit  of  his  own  scientific  studies, 
he  stated  that  he  was  losing  his  sense  of  culture ;  and 
unless  the  loss  promoted  in  some  way  his  great  work  it 
was  a  misfortune. 

At  one  time,  not  yet  very  remote,  culture  denoted 
a  definite  body  of  knowledge,  the  common  possession 
of  all  educated  men,  the  boundaries  of  which  were 
fairly  well  defined  by  the  curriculum  of  what  was  call- 
ed a  liberal  education.  The  conception  of  such  a  dis- 
tinction between  liberal  or  polite  learning  and  other  in- 
formation, underlay  the  squib  current  at  Oxford  about 

"My  name  is  Benjamin  Jowett, 

I'm  the  Master  of  Balliol  College, 
Whate'er  can  be  known,  I  know  it, 
And  what  I  don't  know  is  not  knowledge." 

But  with  the  rapid  growth  of  human  knowledge, 
with  the  rise  in  rank  of  new  professions  to  the  same 
level  as  the  older  ones,  with  the  extension  of  the  sub- 
jects taught  in  a  scholarly  way  in  the  institutions  of 
higher  learning,  it  has  become  obviously  impossible 
for  anyone  to  know  more  than  a  small  part  of  the 
things  that  are  properly  termed  liberal  or  polite.  There 
has  wholly  ceased  to  be  any  fixed  body  of  knowledge 
that   every   well   educated   man   can   be   expected   to 

tlTfje  Wini\}tv^itv  of  i^ortfj  Carolina  27 

possess.  Nor,  save  the  great  monuments  of  literature, 
especially  in  one's  own  tongue,  can  any  subject  be 
said  to  be  absolutely  essential  to  the  equipment  of  a 
well  educated  man, — none  that  can  be  labelled  indis- 
pensable for  culture, — certainly  none  with  which  a 
man  must  be  thoroughly  familiar.  None,  on  the 
other  hand,  can  be  said  to  form  no  part  of  a  liberal 
education, — none  also,  of  which  the  most  complete 
mastery  will  be  enough  by  itself  alone  to  deserve  the 
name.  A  scholar  may  conceivably  have  a  most  minute 
and  comprehensive  knowledge  of  history,  or  of  phi- 
losophy, or  of  classical  literature  and  philology,  and 
yet,  if  he  has  strictly  nothing  more,  not  merit  the  title 
of  a  man  of  culture. 

Culture,  therefore,  does  not  mean  the  possession 
of  a  body  of  knowledge  common  to  all  educated  men, 
for  there  is  no  such  thing  today.  It  denotes  rather  an 
attitude  of  mind  than  a  specific  amount  of  informa- 
tion. It  implies  enjoyment  of  things  the  world  has 
agreed  are  beautiful ;  interest  in  the  knowledge  that 
mankind  has  found  valuable;  comprehension  of  the 
principles  that  the  race  has  accepted  as  true.  All  this 
involves  a  desire  to  know  coupled  with  a  capacity  to 
acquire,  and  appreciate.  No  doubt  men  differ  very 
much  in  their  natural  power  of  acquiring  such  a  cul- 
ture. Some  people  are  born  with  little  or  no  apti- 
tude for  it,  others  with  a  strong  impulse  for  it,  but  no 
one  is  born  possessed  of  it.  No  one  can  attain  it 
without  long  continued  toil  and  an  effort  which  may 
be  pleasant  or  irksome,  may  seem  easy  or  laborious 
according  to  personal  temperament  and  energy,  but 
which  is  always  strenuous. 

28  ^lie  Jf  umtion  of  tije  ^tate  Winihtv^it^ 

If  there  is  no  royal  road  to  learning  or  to  culture, 
no  broad  highway  that  one  can  traverse  in  rapid  in- 
dolence in  an  expensive  motor  car,  or  cheaply  for  a 
five  cent  fare,  there  are,  on  the  other  hand,  many  dif- 
ferent paths  leading  to  the  goal — some  of  them  well- 
beaten  by  the  foot-steps  of  those  who  have  passed,  and 
are  yearly  passing  over  them ;  some  less  frequented 
and  trodden  only  by  earnest  men  who  have  the  in- 
telligence and  persistence  to  find  the  way.  It  is  with 
the  former  that  our  colleges  are  chiefly  concerned  be- 
cause it  is  their  duty  to  guide  students  throug"!!  the 
most  certain  and  quickest  roads  to  the  end  they  seek. 

But  if  culture  itself  is  elusive,  the  roads  thereto 
are  not  fixed  by  authoritative  sign  boards,  nor  mapped 
out  by  universal  agreement;  and  if  culture  no  longer 
implies  a  recognized  body  of  knowledge,  there  is  no 
regular  curriculum  of  studies  leading  to  it.  An  atti- 
tude of  mind  is  a  much  more  subtle  thing  to  produce, 
and  many  are  the  differences  of  opinion  about  the  way 
to  set  about  the  task.  One  cannot  speak,  therefore, 
dogmatically  as  of  general  accepted  doctrines,  but  only 
from  the  standpoint  of  personal  conviction. 

Certain  principles,  it  seems  to  me,  may  be  clearly 
seen,  or  deduced  from  the  nature  of  the  object  in 
view.  If  for  culture  one  must  have  learned  to  enjoy 
as  many  as  possible  of  the  things  the  world  deems 
beautiful;  to  know  enough  to  take  an  interest  in  all 
knowledge  that  mankind  has  found  valuable;  and  to 
have  pondered  enough  to  comprehend  the  ideas  that 
the  race  has  accepted  as  true,  then  it  is  obvious  that 
to  be  cultivated,  a  man  must  at  some  time  have  had 
some  acquaintance  with  a  good  many  subjects.     The 

tKfje  Wini\)tx^itp  of  ^ortfj  Carolina  29 

number  of  these,  however,  is  not  so  large  as  one  might 
suppose,  because  entrance  into  one  field  often  opens 
the  gateway  to  others.  Appreciation  of  good  literature 
in  one  language  provides  the  basis  for  appreciating  it 
in  another,  and  to  a  less  extent  this  is  true  between 
any  two  different  arts.  The  same  thing  may  be  said 
of  the  various  branches  of  science.  Each  subject 
has  many  points  of  contact  to  which  any  new  kindred 
thing  will  adhere,  so  that,  unless  it  withers  away  by 
disuse,  knowledge  tends  to  roll  up  like  a  snowball. 
Similes  are  the  bane  of  educational  reasoning,  and 
perhaps  in  this  case  it  would  be  better  to  use  the  lan- 
guage in  which  I  have  already  spoken  of  culture,  and 
say  that  an  attitude  of  intellectual  attention  and  ap- 
preciation having  been  acquired  in  any  subject,  it 
tends  to  increase  and  to  bring  fresh  knowledge  of 
things  similar  to  those  in  which  interest  has  been 

The  moral  to  be  drawn  is  that  which  the  late  Wil- 
liam James  laid  down  in  his  "Talks  to  Teachers" — 
All  thought  springs  from  a  cue ;  therefore  increase 
the  number  of  cues  as  much  as  you  can.  The  man  or 
woman  who  desires  to  be  cultivated  should  strive  to 
have  at  least  a  little  familiarity  with  as  many  diverse 
fields  of  human  thought  as  possible.  No  great  region 
should  be  wholly  a  strange,  unexplored  wilderness, 
traversed  only  by  people  who  utter  dark  sentences  in 
an  unknown  tongue. 

A  second  moral  may  also  be  taken  from  William 
James.  He  used  to  insist  that  no  one  learns  a  new 
subject  after  twenty-nine,  and  the  saying  sometimes 
hurt  the  feelings  of  people  who  had  passed  that  age. 

30  Cfie  ^function  of  tfie  ^tate  ^niber£Sitj» 

Nevertheless,  it  is  in  the  main  true,  not  only  because 
after  maturity  the  mind  is  normally  less  receptive,  but 
also  because  modern  life  is  so  full  of  activity,  even  for 
those  who  have  nothing  useful  to  do,  that  it  is  hard 
to  find  time  for  the  heavy  work  of  studying  the  ele- 
ments of  a  new  subject. 

But  there  is  another  side  to  all  this.  A  mere  smat- 
tering of  many  things  may  give  a  facility  in  conversa- 
tion, an  appearance  of  education,  a  superficial  aspect 
of  culture,  while  the  substance  is  hopelessly  lacking. 

I  remember  a  young  friend  of  mine  of  whom 
it  was  said  he  was  striving  to  acquire  many  accom- 
plishments but  no  education.  It  is  not  enough  to  stake 
out  a  claim  to  knowledge,  and  run  the  bounds.  That 
may  be  of  some  use  against  outsiders,  but  it  yields  little 
profit  to  oneself.  The  possessor  may  claim  the  terri- 
tory, but  he  cannot  live  on  it.  Everyone  is  aware  of 
the  difference  between  two  people  in  their  intellectual 
approach  to  a  subject  with  which  they  have  only  a 
slight  acquaintance  when  one  of  them  has  a  smattering 
of  many  things  without  a  real  mastery  of  any,  and  the 
other  has  a  firm  grasp  of  the  principles  in  some  branch 
of  knowledge.  We  say  that  the  latter  has  a  trained 
mind  while  the  smatterer  has  not.  The  trained  mind 
recognizes  quickly  the  distinction  between  superficial 
phenomena  and  the  underlying  causes  that  produce 
them.  Such  a  mind  goes,  we  say,  easily  to  the  root 
of  the  matter.  This  is  an  art  that  can  be  learned,  but 
like  other  arts,  it  can  be  learned  only  by  practice,  that 
is  by  getting  at  the  root  of  something. 

The  art,  or  the  habit  of  getting  at  the  root  of  things 
is  essentially  an  attitude  of  mind.     So  far  as  the  sub- 

tKJje  ZKnibergitp  of  i^rtfj  Carolina  31 

ject  matter  is  concerned  over  which  a  mastery  is  ac- 
quired it  may  be  called  knowledge,  but  as  regards  other 
subjects  it  is  certainly  an  attitude  of  mind,  and  this  is 
the  more  enduring.  The  special  knowledge  may  pass 
away,  but  the  habit  of  thought  does  not.  Let  me  take 
an  example  from  science,  for  the  laws  of  nature  are  as 
fully  a  branch  of  modern  culture  as  anything  else.  If 
one  learns  by  the  study  of  geology  to  observe  natural 
objects  not  merely  to  see  what  is  obvious  to  the  un- 
trained eye,  but  to  notice  those  things  that  are  related 
to  geologic  forces — he  may  find  after  a  time  that  the 
names  and  characteristics  of  the  different  rocks,  the 
detail  in  the  succession  of  the  different  strata,  are  in 
great  part  forgotten  through  disuse,  but  the  habit  of 
observation  will  remain  and  can  be  applied  to  other 
natural  objects.  In  fact,  such  a  habit  will  almost  cer- 
tainly be  kept  from  decay  by  constant  use  in  many 
things.  This  is  true  of  all  study,  no  matter  what  the 
subject  may  be;  and  if  so,  a  penetrating,  thorough  and 
profound  attitude  of  mind  is  one  of  the  most  important 
arts  that  can  be  acquired. 

This  address  deals  not  so  much  with  culture,  as 
with  the  basis  for  culture  that  can  be  laid  by  a  college 
or  university,  for  culture  like  all  education  must  con- 
tinue through  life.  All  we  can  do  as  teachers  is  to 
lay  the  best  foundation  for  it  that  we  can,  and  the 
upshot  of  the  argument  here  presented  is  comprised 
in  the  old  adage  that  the  true  basis  for  culture  is  to 
know  a  little  of  everything  and  everything  of  some- 
thing. While  we  may  admit  that  this  is  the  object  to 
be  sought,  sharp  differences  of  opinion  exist,  and  will 
long  remain,  in  regard  to  the  means  of  attaining  it. 

32  Wi)t  jFunction  of  tl^e  ^tate  ®nibers!itj> 

One  question  thrusts  itself  prominently  forward. 
Every  man  who  is  to  study  a  profession  must,  if  he 
is  serious,  master  that  subject  well;  why  then,  it  may 
be  asked,  should  he  not  devote  his  previous  college 
course  wholly  to  getting  as  wide  an  acquaintance  with 
as  many  subjects  as  possible,  and  leave  his  thorough 
knowledge  of  one  field  to  his  professional  training? 
The  answer  is  obvious  to  anyone  who  has  had  prac- 
tical experience  The  mind  that  deals  only  with  ele- 
mentary work  in  many  subjects  rarely  gets  the  vigorous 
training  needed  to  acquire  a  firm  grasp  of  any  of  them. 
The  smatterer  on  leaving  college  is  a  smatterer.  He 
has  never  learned  anything  thoroughly,  and  although 
me  may  do  so  later,  his  subsequent  training  will  hardly 
relate  backwards  to  illumine  and  deepen  his  knowl- 
edge of  subjects  that  was  superficial  when  he  acquired 
it.  If  the  best  result  is  to  be  obtained,  the  thorough 
study  of  one  subject  must  be  contemporaneous  with 
the  diversified  study  of  others  and  radiate  light  into 

Another  question  of  a  diametrically  opposite  tend- 
ency presents  itself  no  less  forcibly.  Why  should  not 
the  professional  study  accompany  the  getting  of  an 
acquaintance  with  many  other  subjects,  so  that  both 
go  along  together,  the  professional  training  supplying 
the  backbone  of  the  college  curriculum?  This  is  a 
•much  more  subtle,  if  not  a  more  difficult  question,  and 
it  is  one  that  we  must  actually  face,  because  it  involves 
a  strong  existing  tendency  among  American  colleges. 
Again  the  answer  to  it  is  found  only  in  practical  ex- 
perience. Professional  study  leading  to  a  man's  ca- 
reer in  life,  is  and  ought  to  be,  almost  passionately  ab- 

Wf)t  Wini\}tt^itv  of  iBortf)  Carolina  33 

sorbing  in  comparision  with  other  subjects  pursued  at 
the  same  time.  These  are  apt  to  be  regarded  as  of 
lesser  importance  as  outlying  parts  of  the  curriculum 
of  the  school  somewhat  arbitrarily  forced  upon  the 
student,  and  not  of  direct  value  commensurate  with 
the  things  needed  in  professional  life.  It  is  well-nigh 
impossible,  for  example,  to  persuade  a  student  of  law, 
medicine  or  engineering  that  literature  is  for  him  a 
serious  matter,  on  a  par  with  his  technical  work.  Gen- 
eral subjects  are,  therefore,  likely  to  be  neglected  or 
treated  lightly  when  studied  in  a  school  primarily  pro- 
fessional. When,  on  the  other  hand,  professional 
courses  are  introduced  into  a  college  curriculum  they 
are  apt  to  suffer,  not,  indeed,  as  compared  with  the 
general  subjects,  but  as  compared  with  what  can  be 
accomplished  in  a  school  wholly  devoted  to  preparation 
for  a  career.  It  is  difficult  in  a  college,  with  its  al- 
luring extra  curriculum  activities,  to  create  the  strong 
professional  atmosphere  that  promotes  the  best  tech- 
nical training. 

For  men,  therefore,  who  can  give  the  time,  there  is  a 
distinct  advantage  in  pursuing  their  general  studies  be- 
fore the  professional  ones.  In  short,  there  is  much  to 
be  said  for  separating  the  work  of  college  and  pro- 
fessional schools.  It  follows  also  that  the  course  in 
the  college  ought  to  cover  a  number  of  different  sub- 
jects, together  with  a  somewhat  thorough  study  of  one 
among  them.  What  that  one  should  be  will  vary  with 
the  personal  aptitude  of  the  student.  In  my  own 
opinion,  it  is  better,  as  a  general  rule,  that  it  should 
not  be  too  closely  akin  to  the  subject  which  will  en- 
gross attention  in  the  chief  occupation  of  life;  because 

34  ^t^t  Jf  unction  of  tije  ^tate  ?!anibergitj> 

any  direct  professional  knowledge  that  can  be  obtained 
in  college  is  trifling  compared  with  what  can  be  ac- 
quired in  a  far  shorter  period  in  a  professional  school, 
and  the  attempt  to  obtain  it  crowds  out  some  other  sub- 
ject that  will  probably  never  be  studied  at  a  later  time. 

This  is  not  the  time  to  review  the  methods  of  educa- 
tion in  foreign  countries.  To  be  successful,  any  sys- 
tem must  be  consistent  with  itself,  and  it  is  unsafe  to 
graft  a  foreign  limb  into  a  root  unadapted  to  sustain 
it.  So  far  as  culture  is  concerned,  our  problem  is  to 
develop  in  harmony  with  our  own  institutions  a  type 
of  education  that  will  cause  young  people  to  enjoy  the 
things  the  world  has  agreed  are  beautiful,  to  be  in- 
terested in  the  knowledge  mankind  has  found  valuable, 
and  to  comprehend  the  principles  the  race  has  accepted 
as  true.  This  is  culture,  and  to  impart  it  is  a  function 
of  the  American  college. 

We  are  sometimes  told  that  after  youths  are  eman- 
cipated from  the  rigid  discipline  of  the  schoolmaster, 
they  cannot  be  made  to  take  very  seriously  any  studies 
which  do  not  have  a  manifest  bearing  on  their  career 
in  life.  But  if  it  be  true  that  they  cannot  be  led  to 
work  hard  in  an  earnest  effort  to  understand  the 
knowledge  slowly  wrought  out,  and  the  civilization 
painfully  achieved  by  man  upon  this  planet,  then  our 
colleges  do  not  deserve  to  survive  and  will  certainly 

Wi)t  Wini\itxfiitv  of  i^rtfi  Carolina  35 


President  Frank  Johnson  Goodnow,  oe  Johns 
Hopkins  University 

I  don't  know  that  I  can  illustrate  better  what  I  wish 
to  say  about  the  importance  of  research  and  investiga- 
tion than  by  telling  a  story  which  one  of  my  friends 
once  told  me. 

He  was  travelling  on  one  of  the  steamers  which 
go  through  Long  Island  Sound  from  New  York  to 
Boston.  It  was  a  beautiful  night  and  he  was  up  near 
the  bow  of  the  boat  looking  over  the  rail  at  the  bril- 
liant phosphorescence  in  the  water.  As  the  bow  wave 
curled  over  flashes  of  lambent  fire  illumined  the  dark 
sea.  He  became  conscious  of  the  presence  of  a  man 
who  also  was  struck  with  the  beauty  of  the  scene.  This 
man  said  to  him:  "Sir,  can  you  tell  me  what  is  the 
cause  of  the  light  in  the  water  down  there?"  My 
friend  said,  "I  don't  really  know  what  is  the  cause,  but 
some  of  my  scientific  friends  tell  me  that  it  is  to  be 
found  in  the  presence  of  minute  organisms,  which 
glow  in  somewhat  the  same  way  in  which  fireflies  give 
forth  light  as  they  fly  about  through  the  air."  The 
questioner  hesitated  a  moment  and  then  replied :  "I 
don't  believe  it.  I  don't  suppose  that  any  man  in  the 
United  States  has  thought  more  about  this  matter  than 
I  have,  and  I  never  thought  of  that." 

The  attitude  of  this  man  towards  this  natural  phe- 
nomenon is,  it  seems  to  me,  characteristic  of  the  for- 
mer attitude  of  even  the  most  intelligent  members  of 
the  human  race  towards  the  life  which  they  saw 
around  them.    Indeed,  we  might  perhaps  say  that,  the 

36  Ct)e  ^Function  of  tfje  ^tate  Wini\itvsiit^ 

more  intelligent  men  were,  the  more  apt  they  were  to 
attempt  to  reach  a  solution  of  the  many  problems  pre- 
sented to  them  through  distinctly  thinking  processes. 
The  more  thoughtful  they  were,  the  more  apt  they 
were  to  generalize;  and  such  generalizations  as  were 
reached  were  commonly  based  on  theoretical  specula- 
tion controlled  by  what  was  called  logical  reasoning. 

The  desire  which  the  human  mind  has  had  for  an 
explanation  of  the  universe, — man's  intellectual  curi- 
osity,— has  led  to  the  formulation  of  systems  of  what 
were  called  philosophy  which  attempted  to  explain  the 
whys  and  the  wherefores  of  the  universe  as  well  as  of 
this  earthly  life. 

Furthermore,  the  sense  of  helplessness  which  most 
men  have  had  in  the  presence  of  nature  has  led  many 
of  the  originators  of  these  philosophical  systems  to  dis- 
cover supernatural  causes  for  the  most  ordinary  phe- 
nomena. Systems  of  theology  have  been  framed 
which  have  endeavored  thus  to  explain  what  at  the 
time  was  otherwise  inexplicable.  Other  such  systems 
have  attempted  to  reconcile  man  to  the  adoption  of 
the  conception  that  there  is  much  that  will  always  re- 
main inexplicable  with  regard  to  which  we  must  have 
faith  in  the  purposes  of  a  beneficent  but  inscrutable 

I  think  it  is  fair  to  say  then,  that  the  common  atti- 
tude of  man  towards  the  phenomena  of  life  has  been 
one  of  what  we  may  call  thoughtfulness.  He  has 
speculated  rather  than  observed,  theorized  rather  than 
experimented.  We  may  go  even  further.  We  may 
say  that  this  is  the  attitude  of  most  men  at  the  present 
time.    In  only  one  group  of  peoples  is  there  a  different 

tICte  Wini\3tviitv  of  ^ortf)  Carolina  37 

attitude.  These  peoples  are  those  of  European  origin. 
Among  these  peoples,  of  recent  years,  quite  a  different 
intellectual  attitude  has  been  assumed.  They  have 
within  the  last  three  hundred  years  regarded  with  an 
increasing  distrust  attempts  to  explain  natural  phe- 
nomena by  speculative  and  purely  theoretical  pro- 
cesses. Perhaps  no  better  illustration  can  be  given  of 
the  present  attitude  of  the  European  mind  than  is  con- 
tained in  the  rather  famous  modern  definition  of  a  phi- 
losopher as  a  "blind  man  looking  in  a  dark  room  for 
a  black  cat  which  is  not  there." 

The  former  philosophical,  speculative,  theoretical, 
a  priori  attitude  has  been  replaced,  however,  in  recent 
times  by  what  is  spoken  of  as  the  scientific,  practical, 
inductive  attitude.  Less  emphasis  is  now  laid  on  mere 
thinking,  more  on  observation  and  experiment.  Gen- 
eralizations are  now  made  as  the  result  of  the  consider- 
ation of  facts  ascertained  through  careful  observa- 
tion. When  made,  such  generalizations  are  checked 
and  limited  by  experiment. 

By  changing  their  attitude  in  this  way  European 
peoples  are  not,  however,  really  making  a  new  depart- 
ure. They  are  rather  resuming  the  attitude  which  at 
one  time  differentiated  the  European  from  other 
minds.  More  than  two  thousand  years  ago  the  lead- 
ers of  European  thought  had  begun  to  observe,  to 
generalize  from  their  observations  and  to  limit  their 
generalizations  through  experiments.  Hippocrates 
and  Aristotle,  not  to  mention  others,  had  begun  the  at- 
tempt to  lay  the  foundations  of  scientific  as  opposed  to 
philosophical  thinking.  But  for  some  reason  or  other 
these  first  rather  feeble  efforts  were  checked  and  after 

38  Wbt  Jf  unction  of  tte  ^tate  ?Hnibersiitj> 

about  200  A.  D.  the  European  adopted  for  all  prac- 
tical purposes  the  intellectual  attitude  which  had  been 
common  to  the  rest  of  mankind.  For  fifteen  hundred 
years  he  speculated  and  theorized.  He  forgot  to  ob- 
serve and  experiment.  It  was  only  with  the  revival  of 
Greek  learning,  about  the  middle  of  the  fifteenth  cen- 
tury, that  his  feet  began  to  tread  the  paths  of  science 
from  which  so  long  they  had  strayed. 

Now  what  are  the  concrete  manifestations  of  this 
new  mental  attitude?  And  what  are  the  effects  which 
it  has  on  educational  ideals  and  methods? 

In  the  first  place  I  think  we  may  properly  say  that 
the  modern  educated  man,  the  scholar,  if  we  may  use 
that  much  abused  term,  is  a  much  more  modest  man 
than  was  the  case  with  his  forbear.  He  distrusts 
broad  generalizations,  he  abhors  general  theories,  he 
has  no  faith  whatever  in  panaceas  for  the  ills  from 
which  society  suffers.  He  knows  that  development  in 
any  direction  is  a  slow  and  often  painful  process  and 
that  adjustment  to  changes  in  conditions  will  be  made 
more  easily  where  those  affected  will  possess  their 
souls  in  patience.  He  is  convinced  that  every  addi- 
tion to  our  knowledge  must  come  as  the  result  of  pains- 
taking observation  rather  than  of  brilliant  thinking. 

In  a  word  I  think  we  may  say  that  the  most  re- 
markable concrete  manifestation  of  this  changed  in- 
tellectual attitude  is  that  the  scholar  and  the  practical 
man  have  come  closer  together.  I  am  afraid  also  that 
we  shall  have  to  admit  that  this  rapprochement  has 
been  due  rather  to  a  change  upon  the  part  of  the 
scholar  than  to  an  abandonment  of  his  position  by  the 
practical  man.     For  in  the  old  days  when  the  scholar 

tE^fje  ®[nibers;itj>  of  Movtl)  Carolina  39 

generalized  the  practical  man  often  refused  to  accept 
his  generalizations,  and  a  good  deal  was  heard  about 
the  contrast  between  theory  and  practice.  At  the  pres- 
ent time,  however,  the  sometime  theoretical  scholar 
has  been  replaced  by  the  skilled  expert  whose  opinions 
are  requested  by  the  practical  man  as  a  means  of  as- 
sisting him  in  the  solution  of  the  problems  of  daily 

This  change  in  our  mental  attitude  has  naturally 
had  an  important  influence  on  our  educational  ideals 
and  methods.  We  endeavor  probably  more  than  ever 
before  to  inculcate  in  those  who  are  being  educated 
the  desire  to  find  out  as  a  result  of  research  and  in- 
vestigation what  are  the  actual  facts  and  what  is  the 
real  truth.  Never  before  in  the  history  of  European 
education  has  the  pursuit  of  truth  been  so  ardently  fol- 
lowed. Never  before  in  the  history  of  European 
thought  has  thought  been  so  free.  Never  before  have 
so  few  obstacles  been  opposed  to  finding  out  what 
really  is.  Precision  and  accuracy  have  assumed  virtues 
they  never  had  before,  not  so  much  because  our  morals 
have  improved  as  because  we  see  how  necessary  it  is  to 
be  precise  and  accurate.  In  the  old  days  when  it  was 
not  considered  possible  to  prove  a  generalization,  gen- 
eralizers  were  more  daring  than  at  present  when  their 
conclusions  are  subjected  to  the  acid  test  of  experi- 

Furthermore  our  educational  ideals  have  changed  in 
that  they  are  much  more  closely  related  than  formerly  to 
the  facts  of  life.  There  is  much  in  human  life  to  be  stud- 
ied and  to  be  learned,  which,  if  studied  and  learned, 
will  make  our  lives  happier  and  better.    We  have  come 

40  tlTfje  Jf unction  of  tfje  ^tate  ?Hnitiet£{itj> 

to  the  conclusion  that  such  a  study  is  worthy  of  our  best 
efforts.  Where  we  know  we  can  study  and  really  learn 
we  naturally  ask  the  question  why  should  we  speculate 
and  theorize.  Take  for  example  the  great  field  of 
medical  research.  We  know  that  if  we  use  the  mi- 
croscope, the  scalpel,  and  the  test  tube  we  shall  in  all 
probability  discover  the  cause  and  cure  of  disease. 
Why  under  such  conditions  should  we  not  devote  our 
attention  to  medicine  even  at  the  expense  of  some  less 
practical  subject?  Take  again  the  great  fields  of  sci- 
ence and  engineering.  We  know  as  a  result  of  our 
past  experience  that  a  knowledge  of  these  subjects 
will  help  us  to  conquer  nature,  to  annihilate  space  and 
time  through  improvement  in  the  means  of  communi- 
cation. Why  under  these  conditions  should  we  not 
devote  ourselves  to  the  study  of  these  subjects  even  if 
by  so  doing  we  have  less  time  to  speculate  upon  the 
origin  and  fate  of  things? 

This  change  in  our  mental  attitude  has  affected  also 
in  a  most  vital  manner  our  methods  of  instruction. 
We  lay  more  emphasis  on  the  power  to  do  than  on  the 
ability  to  think.  We  prize  more  the  capacity  to  gen- 
eralize than  the  power  to  memorize.  The  recitation 
is  giving  way  to  the  laboratory.  The  lecture  is  making 
place  for  the  source  book  and  the  collection  of  read- 
ings. We  who  are  teaching  try  probably  more  than 
teachers  formerly  tried  to  get  the  student  to  do  things 
for  himself.  We  encourage  him  to  become  an  active 
agent  rather  than  a  passive  recipient. 

In  many  of  our  higher  institutions  of  learning  the 
investigator  occupies  a  place  whose  importance  is 
comparable  with  that  formerly  occupied  by  the  teacher. 

tlTfje  tHnibersiitp  of  ilortfi  Carolina  41 

Indeed  in  more  than  one  of  our  universities  appoint- 
ment to  the  higher  positions  is  dependent  perhaps  more 
upon  productive  abiHty  than  upon  teaching  capacity. 
To  our  former  educational  ideals  we  have  added  the 
new  one  of  research  and  investigation.  Institutions 
which  were  founded  primarily  as  teaching  institutions 
are  perhaps  better  known  for  the  contributions  which 
their  members  make  to  the  sum  of  our  knowledge  than 
for  the  number  of  students  they  instruct. 

This  attention  which  has  in  recent  years  been  paid 
to  research,  has  finally  had  the  effect  of  stimulating 
through  private  beneficence  the  establishment  of  or- 
ganizations which  devote  themselves  exclusively  to 
research  and  investigation  and  of  causing  governments 
to  employ  persons  of  ability  who  shall  devote  their 
entire  time  to  similar  work. 

In  this  way  the  change  in  the  attitude  of  the  Euro- 
pean mind,  which  has  come  about  during  the  last  three 
centuries,  has  brought  with  it  corresponding  changes 
in  our  educational  ideals  and  in  our  pedagogical  meth- 
ods. Can  it  truthfully  be  said  that  those  changes  have 
not  been  of  the  greatest  advantage?  We  must  of 
course  curb  our  enthusiasm  for  research  and  investi- 
gation so  that  it  will  not  lead  us  to  neglect  other  things 
of  value.  We  must  remember  that  we  have  a  past  as 
well  as  a  future ;  that  we  even  now  know  many  things 
although  we  have  much  to  discover  and  learn.  We 
who  have  the  young  to  teach  must  not  forget  our 
charges  in  our  pursuit  of  the  unknown. 

If,  however,  we  are  mindful  of  our  duties  no  rea- 
sonable objection  can  be  made  to  our  inclusion  of  re- 
search and  investigation  among  the  purposes  of  our 

42  Wbt  Jf  unction  of  tfie  ^tate  Wini\itv&itp 

educational  institutions.  If  we  teach  those  who  are 
entrusted  to  our  care  that  there  is  a  past  without  a 
knowledge  of  which  the  present  can  hardly  be  under- 
stood, no  reasonable  persons  can  complain  if  we  at  the 
same  time  try  to  teach  our  students  to  be  precise  and 
accurate  and  to  give  them  the  ability  to  act  and  do  as 
well  as  to  think  and  remember. 


President  Edwin  Anderson  Alderman,  oe  the 
University  oe  Virginia 

A  certain  fine  distinction  inheres  in  American  life 
because  that  life,  as  a  political  system,  at  least,  was 
born  in  the  romantic  dawn  of  the  democratic  era, 
ushered  in  by  the  brilliant  thinking  of  the  great  French 
philosophers  of  the  eighteenth  century.  These  for- 
ward-looking men  first  formulated  and  asserted  that 
notion  of  the  social  order  in  which  true  individualism 
and  true  socialism  complemented  each  other,  and  in 
which  the  authority  which  must  always  be  adminis- 
tered by  a  few  was  constituted  and  controlled  by  the 
many.  The  solid  and  permanent  glory  of  this  nation 
or  any  nation  so  born  must  finally  be  determined  by 
its  ability  to  comprehend  and  to  re-adapt  the  theory  and 
practice  of  democracy,  as  its  reacts  upon  society  in  its 
progressive  changes,  as  an  eternal  faith,  elastic  enough 
to  confront  and  strong  enough  to  overcome  the  chang- 
ing forms  of  human  injustice. 

When  Thomas  Jefferson  was  writing  the  Declara- 
tion of  Independence,  Adam  Smith  was  writing  The 
Wealth  of  Nations.    In  the  heart  of  the  American  lay 

Cfje  ?Knibers;itp  of  Movtf)  Carolina  43 

the  fear  of  kings  and  nobles,  a  belief  in  the  perfecta- 
bility  of  man,  patience  with  his  weaknesses,  and  faith 
in  his  final  wisdom,  if  helped  and  guided  by  the  co- 
operative state.  In  the  heart  of  the  Scotchman  lay  the 
fear  of  poverty  and  disorder,  the  instability  of  the 
masses,  and  a  vision  of  ordered  prosperity  achieved  by 
individual  initiative  unhampered  by  state  influence.  The 
fears  of  each  of  these  great  thinkers,  as  well  as  their 
hopes,  struck  and  still  strike  deep  into  the  human  heart, 
and  the  philosophies  built  upon  their  doctrines,  vitalized 
by  the  growth  of  the  natural  sciences,  have  created,  it 
may  be  claimed,  this  vast  complex  thing  we  call  the 
modern  state,  and  particularly  the  American  Republic. 
The  teachings  of  both,  though  essentially  antagonistic, 
have  run  a  free  course  for  over  a  century,  and  we  find 
ourselves  today  a  rich,  powerful,  prosperous  people  but 
still  striving  to  be  a  sympathetic,  just,  and  free  people, 
with  the  faith  of  democracy  still  in  our  hearts  and  the 
weapon  of  public  education  in  our  hands. 

The  concept  of  democracy  varies  with  the  soul  and 
reveals  the  character  of  the  man  or  the  people  who  de- 
fine and  use  it.  Our  most  vivid  and  illuminating  defi- 
nitions have  come  from  the  Latin  races.  The  Anglo- 
Saxon  has  defined  it  less  vividly  but  has  lived  it  per- 
haps more  consistently.  Joseph  Mazzini  declared  it  to 
be  the  progress  of  all,  through  all,  under  the  leadership 
of  the  wisest.  Louis  Pasteur  esteemed  it  to  be  that 
order  in  the  state  in  which  every  man  has  the  oppor- 
tunity to  make  the  most  of  himself.  Talleyrand 
cynically  declared  it  to  be  an  aristocracy  of  black- 
guards. Hamilton  roughly  described  it  as  a  great 
beast.     Singularly   enough,   Jefferson  never  tried   to 

44  K\)t  Jf unction  of  tije  ^tate  Winiiitv^itp 

define  it.  Like  Christianity  to  the  Master,  it  was  not 
a  nomenclature  to  him,  but  a  life,  and  its  guiding  prin- 
ciple, as  I  have  pointed  out,  was  the  terribly  simple 
conviction,  not  yet  fully  tested  by  time  or  experience, 
that  unequal  and  prone  to  err  as  men  are,  you  can 
trust  men  if  you  will  train  them.  Conceived  of  as  a 
spirit  ruling  in  the  heart  of  the  individual,  democracy 
means,  according  to  the  American  point  of  view,  faith 
in  the  ultimate  rectitude  of  public  impulse  and  the 
ultimate  wisdom  of  trained  intelligence.  As  a  po- 
litical system,  it  is  that  state  in  which  men  have  an 
opportunity  to  earn  freedom  through  mastery  of  them- 
selves and  likewise  a  right  to  govern  themselves 
and  others  through  the  exercise  of  reason,  intelli- 
gence and  sympathy.  As  a  working  social  theory 
democracy  has  greatly  advanced  its  point  of  view 
from  a  theory  of  politics  and  philosophy  to  a 
theory  of  social  and  economic  fairness  and  oppor- 
tunity; from  a  negative  fear  of  tyrants  to  a  posi- 
tive hope  of  perfection.  The  great  grandsons  of  the 
men  who  debated  about  the  rights  of  man  and  what 
seemed  to  them  the  Utopia  of  equal  suffrage,  now  fo- 
cus their  thoughts  upon  the  nature  of  capital,  the 
rights  of  labor,  the  country  road,  the  country  school, 
the  growing  child,  the  sanitary  home — a  clear  path 
from  rural  isolation  to  some  such  place  as  this.  En- 
lightenment— Aufkldrung — is  the  supreme  essential  of 
democracy  while  democracy  is  the  supreme  opportun- 
ity of  enlightenment.  If  such,  then,  be  the  nature  of 
modern  democracy,  it  is  very  clear  that  the  one  thing 
it  cannot  do  without  is  the  school,  and  the  one  thing 
the  school,  high  or  low,  cannot  do  without  is  a  clear 

Wbt  Winibtviiitp  of  iSortfi  Carolina  45 

notion  of  how  it  can  train  all  men  not  only  to  perform 
the  duties  of  free  citizenship  but  can  give  all  men  an 
opportunity  to  obtain  a  fair  share  of  the  fullness  of 
life.  What  the  wisest  parent  desires  for  his  child,  that 
the  whole  community  now  plans  to  give  all  of  the  chil- 
dren. The  acid  test  of  all  public  teaching,  especially 
the  higher  education — which  simply  means  more 
education — would  seem  to  be,  therefore,  the  quality 
and  quantity  of  the  service  it  can  render  to  so- 
ciety in  promoting  its  welfare.  With  a  touching  faith 
in  the  power  of  education,  not  alone  as  a  scheme  of 
particularism  and  localism,  but  as  a  great  elemental 
force  moulding  the  character  of  peoples,  America  is 
trying  to  evolve  a  scheme  of  training  more  powerful 
and  far  reaching  perhaps,  certainly  in  its  aim,  than  any 
ever  before  undertaken  by  men  in  this  world,  alike  in 
the  scale  of  expenditure,  in  the  masses  of  men  and 
women  engaged  in  its  work,  and  the  millions  of  youth 
subjected  to  its  discipline.  In  theory  this  whole  under- 
taking is  one  daring,  unified,  correlated  process,  and 
at  its  summit  stands  the  university — in  a  peculiar  or- 
ganic sense,  the  state  university — existing  both  as 
the  symbol  and  the  servant  of  the  spiritual  insights 
and  practical  needs  of  its  epoch. 

I  shall  not  try  to  define  the  university.  Where 
Cardinal  Newman  has  failed,  though  he  enveloped  the 
whole  idea  with  a  wonderful  and  beautiful  idealism, 
I  certainly  need  not  seek  to  succeed,  but  I  may  try  to 
understand  its  evolution.  The  university,  as  an  educa- 
tional form,  came  into  being  as  a  technical  school  to 
train  priests,  to  teach  the  chief  end  of  man  to  a  so- 
ciety absorbed  in  other  worldliness.    Through  a  series 

46  Vtfit  ^function  of  tfje  ^tate  Wini\itv&it^ 

of  other  technical  schools  beginning  with  medicine, 
law,  and  philosophy,  it  steadily  expanded,  under  the 
pressure  of  social  necessities  and  the  rise  of  new  pro- 
fessions, into  a  thing  so  vast  and  varied  that  simple 
folk  cannot  comprehend  its  categories,  much  less  its 
catalogues,  and  gaze  upon  its  activities  as  a  country 
storekeeper  might  gaze  upon  the  floors  and  aisles  of 
a  Grand  Magasin.  Three  things  it  must  always  some- 
how contrive  to  do:  1.  It  must  investigate;  2.  It  must 
instruct  within  and  without  its  walls ;  3.  It  must  pub- 
lish and  propagate  its  ideas.  As  the  activities  of  a 
modern  state  began  to  be  based  more  and  more 
upon  exact  knowledge  and  exact  science,  the  uni- 
versity promptly  organized  to  train  leaders  and  work- 
ers in  those  knowledges  and  sciences,  and  the  nine- 
teenth century  has  seen  it  take  the  last  and  final 
step  in  academic  expansion  by  which  it  took  on  the 
character  of  a  great  co-operative  public  corporation, 
if  you  will,  uniting  on  almost  equal  terms  with  the 
state  in  contributing  to  the  material,  social,  and 
moral  welfare  of  all  the  people  without  as  well  is 
within  its  walls.  With  a  vague  but  sublime  presci- 
ence and  confidence,  the  universities  of  democracy 
are  seeking  to  visualize  and  comprehend  what  con- 
stitutes public  welfare  in  all  its  undefined  but,  to 
their  hopes,  manifold  unity.  Democracy  understands 
imperfectly  but  steadily  that  it  will  break  down  of  the 
very  excess  of  its  unmeasured  idealism  if  it  be  not  co- 
ordinated and  buttressed  by  the  dignity,  the  beauty, 
and  the  peace  of  Culture,  and  I  spell  this  word  here 
with  a  capital  C,  for  I  do  not  mean  organized  efficiency 
in  handling  the  materials  of  civilization  but  a  free  per- 

Cfje  ^Hnilierfifitp  of  fyxt^  Carolina  47 

sonality  with  a  tolerant  mind  and  an  open  heart.  Hence 
democracy  must  build  museums,  collect  libraries, 
gather  beauty  under  noble  roofs  and  conserve  such 
precious  truth  as  has  been  handed  down  from  ages 
past.  Democracy  knows,  however,  that  it  cannot  func- 
tion or  order  its  free,  varied  life  without  the  power 
and  momentum  that  come  out  of  exact,  discriminating 
knowledge  and  the  stability  of  a  steadfast  will.  Hence 
it  seeks  to  build  laboratories,  to  endow  research,  to  sift 
the  masses  for  genius  capable  of  the  highest.  De- 
mocracy also  feels  as  well  as  knows  that  all  of  its  labo- 
ratories and  scholars  will  prove  unavailing  if  they 
shall  be  doomed  to  work  in  an  atmosphere  of  an  unen- 
lightened and  ungrateful  public  opinion.  Hence  its 
universities  must  seek  to  organize  and  extend  their  in- 
fluence in  such  fashion  as  to  touch  and  mould  the 
sources  of  public  opinion.  Life  or  death  to  American 
democracy  depends  upon  whether  its  scheme  of  educa- 
tion shall  be  strong  and  catholic  enough  to  reach  not 
alone  the  youth  to  be  educated  but  all  the  forces  which 
surround  him  and  which  educate  him  —  companions, 
family,  community,  a  force  which  Fichte  dreamed  his 
university  would  be,  "a  place  from  which,  as  from  the 
spiritual  heart  of  the  community,  a  current  of  life- 
energy  might  be  poured  through  all  its  members." 
The  reorganization  of  political  and  industrial  life  on 
the  principle  of  democracy  and  stimulated  by  the  ele- 
mentary and  secondary  schools  has  brought  into  ex- 
istence a  new  world  of  men.  Refusal  to  administer  to 
the  needs  of  this  new  world  would  mean  a  menace  to 
the  body  of  civilization.  To  train  the  tenth  man  was 
the  function  of  the  ancient  university.     To  train  all 

48  W^z  ^function  of  tfje  ^tate  ®nibers;itj> 

men,  directly  or  indirectly,  is  the  duty  of  the  American 
university  within  whose  walls  I  am  convinced  the  his- 
tory and  destiny  of  democracy  will  be  shaped.  I  can 
well  fancy  what  a  dream  this  appears  to  an  old  and 
weary  civilization  or  to  certain  temperaments  among 

"Is  It  a  dream? 

Nay,  but  the  lack  of  it  a  dream ! 

And,  wanting  this,  life's  wealth  and  lore  a  dream, 

And  all  the  world  a  dream !" 

The  very  glory  and  practicality  of  the  mighty  optim- 
ism, endowing  it  with  a  sort  of  religious  and  mystic 
attraction,  give  men  the  impulse  to  live  and  die  that  it 
may  indeed  come  true.  One  ugly  peril  hovering  about 
seats  of  learning  in  past  ages  has  at  least  been  dispelled 
forever  by  this  dream  and  this  new  function  of  learn- 
ing. No  longer  can  institutions  be  mere  fortresses  of 
exclusive  knowledge  engrossed  in  mere  pride  of  at- 
tainment. They  must  dwell  among  and  daily  draw 
nearer  to  men,  not  in  pride  but  in  eagerness  and  hu- 
mility. Philosophy  as  the  doctrine  of  practical  wisdom 
is  at  the  service  of  mankind  at  least,  as  Kant  wished  it 
to  be. 

The  duty  of  the  university  to  care  for  the  state  is 
subtly  supplanting,  or  complementing  as  an  axiom,  the 
duty  of  the  state  to  care  for  the  university.  It  is  a  seri- 
ous question  whether  democracy  has  ever  yet  been 
able  to  give  as  efficient  a  government  as  an  intelligent 
autocracy,  and  I  apprehend  as  a  result  of  the  almost 
superhuman  efficiency  of  the  German  empire,  as  dis- 
played in  this  war,  and  of  the  war  itself  as  a  war  of 
people,  that  we  shall  find  it  necessary  to  debate  all 

Wi)t  ®[nibersiitj>  of  iOUirtfj  Carolina  49 

over  the  world  not  only  the  comparative  advantages  of 
the  two  systems  as  to  their  ability  to  spread  communal 
welfare,  to  exhibit  public  economy  in  the  conduct  of 
their  affairs,  and  to  extend  to  great  peoples  standards 
of  common  comforts  and  fields  of  opportunity,  but  the 
whole  question  of  state  socialism  as  against  individual- 
ism as  the  basis  of  democratic  government.  We  shall 
not  have  to  debate  which  of  the  two  systems — auto- 
cracy, placing  its  whole  trust  in  the  application  of  phy- 
sical science  to  material  wealth  or  technical  skill  as  the 
final  fruit  of  civilization,  or  democracy,  trying  halting- 
ly to  understand  the  spiritual  foundations  of  society — 
can  keep  its  head  in  a  tempest  or  protect  itself  from 
barbaric  debacle.  The  discipline  of  democracy  does 
not  make  for  quick  and  blind  obedience  but  it  does 
induce  the  habit  of  acting  for  one's  self  and  of  asking 
one's  self  in  every  public  or  private  crisis,  where  does 
the  right  lie  in  this  matter?  It  does  somehow  exalt 
the  intelligence  of  the  heart  which  enables  men  and 
nations  to  understand  each  other  above  the  intelligence 
of  the  mind  which  enables  them  merely  to  outwit  each 

There  is,  therefore,  no  need  of  despair.  What  our 
aims  lack  in  definiteness  and  consistency  they  make 
up  for  in  richness  and  freedom.  If  for  some  eras  yet 
we  must  pay  in  terms  of  waste  and  unscientific  ar- 
rangement for  our  patience  and  faith  in  the  final  com- 
ing of  this  richer  and  freer  result,  we  may  comfort 
ourselves  with  the  thought  that  after  all  it  is  not  good 
government  as  an  end,  but  good,  free  citizenship  as  a 
means  that  education  is  striving  for.  As  Romain  Hol- 
land suggests  each  nation  must  cultivate  its  own  gar- 

50  tE^ije  Jf  unction  of  tije  ^tate  Winihtxsitp 

den  but  of  all  the  garden  flowers,  the  finest  is  the  "wild 
violet  of  liberty."  The  American  university,  then, 
must  include  but  go  beyond  the  specific  English  aim, 
if  one  may  dare  to  sum  up  in  brief  phrases  the  national 
ideal  as  expressed  in  educational  forms,  to  train  a 
gentleman's  will  and  give  his  spirit  culture.  It  must 
transcend  but  include  the  specific  French  aim  of  clarity 
of  expression  and  artistic  distinction.  It  must  surpass 
but  comprehend  the  specific  German  aim  of  investiga- 
tion, discovery,  and  organization.  Democracy  needs 
indeed  the  truth  finder,  the  expert,  the  straight  thinker, 
the  man  of  cultivated  manner,  but  it  needs  more  in- 
sistently a  social  environment  in  which  university 
teachers  are  as  conscious  of  what  the  people  are 
thinking  and  needing  as  the  people  are  conscious  of 
what  the  teachers  are  doing.  Conceived  by  public  wis- 
dom, sustained  by  public  virtue,  conditioned  in  its  de- 
velopment by  the  fact  that  none  can  be  well  educated 
unless  all  are  trained,  the  American  university  cannot 
withhold  its  hand  from  any  of  the  probelms  of  social 
and  moral  development  stirring  in  the  nation.  It  may 
well  be  decided  that  some  universities  cannot  undertake 
all  of  these  far-reaching  ends, but  the  state  university  at 
least  must  strive  towards  such  a  discharge  of  its  func- 
tions as  will  cause  a  quicker  intelligence  to  filter 
throughout  all  ranks  of  its  life  and  will  touch  help- 
fully community  as  well  as  individual  life.  Univer- 
sities beholding  their  duty  in  such  large  directions 
must  contrive  to  avoid  the  manifest  dangers  of  such  a 
wide  policy,  for  the  policy  in  some  degree  must  be 
pursued  and  the  university  must  not  become  a  sort  of 
hysterical  factotum  trying  to  reach  everybody  and  do 

tirte  ?KnitJer£iitp  of  i^ortf)  Carolina  51 

everything.  The  university  must  not  fail  to  hold  in 
mind  that,  whatever  its  widest  service  may  be,  its  first 
business  it  to  teach  only  those  subjects  in  which  it  can 
defy  the  critics  of  scholars  and  hold  the  interest  of 
learners,  and  spiritually  it  must  somehow  continue  to 
be  "an  Alma  Mater  knowing  her  children  one  by  one 
and  not  a  factory  or  a  mint  or  a  treadmill."  Within 
its  walls,  I  feel  sure  that  our  universities  must  advance 
their  standards  both  of  requirements  for  admission 
and  requirements  for  graduation.  They  must  sharply 
stiffen  their  intellectual  discipline  and  augment,  if  pos- 
sible, the  primary  sources  of  research  and  investiga- 
tion. Greater  and  more  unique  creative  work  must 
issue  from  American  universities  and  a  more  vigorous 
discipline  inform  their  life,  and  all  this  must  and  can 
be  done  without  jeopardizing  the  democratic  basis  of 
higher  education.  Herein  democracy  as  in  so  many 
other  ways  makes  terrible  demand  upon  the  common 
sense  as  well  as  the  spiritual  vision  of  its  servants,  but 
the  test  must  be  met. 

Our  time-honored,  three-fold  division  of  govern- 
ment may  well  be  expended  into  a  four-fold  division — 
legislative,  executive,  judicial,  and  educative — and  the 
university  justly  takes  its  place  as  that  co-ordinate 
branch  of  democratic  government  out  of  which  may 
be  drawn  a  body  of  experts  and  social-minded  men  of 
good  common  sense  ever  ready  to  undertake  to  ana- 
lyze and  to  understand  and  to  sympathize  with  the 
state  in  its  making;  who  can  organize  its  chief  est  in- 
dustry, the  education  of  its  children ;  who  can  help  de- 
termine the  sort  of  education  which  will  really  pro- 
mote democracy;  who  can  foster  economic  organiza- 

52  tKfje  Jf unction  of  tfje  ^tate  Winiiitt^it^ 

tion  in  its  rural  life;  who  can  vitalize  and  socialize  the 
isolation  of  its  country  life ;  who  can  improve  its  agri- 
culture and  animal  husbandry;  who  can  justly  aid  in 
ordering  its  public  revenues ;  who  can  give  direction  to 
its  thought  and  can  become  finally  aggressive  and  ef- 
fective in  the  application  of  scientific  knowledge  and 
business  sense  to  its  affairs  and  spiritual  unity  and 
direction  to  its  impulses  and  aims.  Whatever  path  of 
service  our  American  universities  may  choose,  and 
freedom  of  choice  belongs  to  them,  the  path  of  this 
particular  University,  entering  today  so  impressively 
upon  a  new  and  confident  era  in  its  history,  lies  clear 
and  shining  before  it.  No  just  man  can  deny  to  it 
leadership  as  the  chief  constructive  agent  in  the  build- 
ing of  a  new  social  order  in  an  old  historic  state  whose 
entire  history,  in  weal  or  woe,  in  defeat  or  triumph, 
is  the  very  epic  of  the  deathlessness  of  democratic 

This  spot  to  me  is  a  place  of  high  memories  and  re- 
alities. Here  I  studied  and  taught  and  administered. 
Here  I  made  acquaintance  with  the  charm  of  scholar- 
ship and  the  obligation  of  public  service.  Here  de- 
mocracy for  me  ceased  to  be  a  theory  and  embodied 
itself  in  living  forms.  I  acclaim  with  affection  and 
with  confidence  the  new  high  priest  who  today  takes 
his  place  at  this  altar.  Strength  to  his  arm  and  vision 
to  his  brain  and  steadfastness  to  his  heart;  and  may 
Alma  Mater  live  and  grow  and  flourish  forever. 

W^t  Wini\}tvsiity  of  ^rtfi  Carolina  53 


In  the  absence  of  President  Abbott  Lawrence  Low- 
ell, who  was  unable  to  be  present  on  account  of  death 
in  his  family,  greetings  from  Harvard  were  presented 
by  Professor  Charles  H.  White,  as  follows : 

"The  President  and  Fellows  of  Harvard  College  to 
the  Trustees  and  Faculty  of  the  University  of  North 

"Greeting  : 

"Harvard  University  sends  its  heartiest  congratu- 
lations to  the  Trustees  and  Faculty  of  the  University 
of  North  Carolina  upon  the  inauguration  of  Edward 
Kidder  Graham,  as  President,  on  Wednesday,  the 
twenty-first  of  April,  nineteen  hundred  and  fifteen. 

"In  response  to  the  courteous  invitation  to  be  rep- 
resented at  the  ceremonies,  Abbott  Lawrence  Lowell, 
LL.  D.,  President,  will  be  the  delegate  to  convey  the 
felicitations  of  Harvard  University. 

"Given  at  Cambridge  on  the  fifteenth  day  of  April 
in  the  year  of  Our  Lord  nineteen  hundred  and  fifteen, 
and  of  Harvard  College  the  two  hundred  and  seventy- 

"A.  Lawrence  Lowei,!/,  President." 

54  Cfje  jf unction  of  tije  ^tate  ?Hnibers;itp 



Ex-President  Francis  Preston  Venable 

Your  Bxcellency: 

It  is  my  privilege  and  a  great  pleasure  to  present 
Edward  Kidder  Graham,  who  has  been  chosen  as  the 
eighth  President  of  the  University  of  North  Carolina. 
I  take  much  pride  in  the  fact  that  I  have  had  a  share 
in  his  teaching  and  training.  I  have  watched  his 
growth  and  promise  and  achievements  through  his  stu- 
dent years  and  the  years  of  service  in  the  faculty  and 
they  give  me  an  assured  confidence  in  his  ability  and 

I  present  to  you  the  President-elect. 


Chief  Justice  Walter  Clark,  oe  the  Supreme  Court 
OF  North  Carolina 

I,  Edward  Kidder  Graham,  in  entering  upon  the 
office  of  President  of  the  University  of  North  Caro- 
lina, do  undertake  to  fulfil  its  duties  to  the  best  of  my 
ability  and  without  fear  or  favor;  to  cherish  and  en- 
courage sound  scholarship  in  its  search  for  the  truth; 
to  consecrate  all  powers  of  the  University  to  the  in- 
tellectual, moral,  and  physical  training  of  youth  for  the 
most  loyal  and  enlightened  citizenship ;  and  wherever 
and  in  whatever  form  it  is  our  privilege  to  see  the 
need,  I  pledge  the  University  to  impartial  and  sympa- 

Cfje  Wim\)tt9iitv  of  i^orti)  Carolina  55 

thetic  service  of  the  people  of  the  State.     So  help  me 


Governor  Locke  Craig 

Edward  Kidder  Graham,  by  my  authority  as  Gov- 
ernor of  North  Carolina  and  President  of  the  Board  of 
Trustees  of  the  University  of  North  Carolina,  and  by 
virtue  of  your  election  by  the  said  Board  of  Trustees, 
and  the  oath  by  which  you  have  pledged  yourself,  I  do 
now  declare  you  President  of  the  University  of  North 
Carolina  and  deliver  to  you  its  charter  and  seal.  And 
I  charge  you  to  a  full  realization  of  the  responsibilities 
laid  upon  you  by  this  office ;  to  the  necessity  for  coura- 
geous and  constructive  thought  in  their  fulfilment ;  and 
to  the  duty  and  privilege  of  seeking  out  the  intellectual 
and  educational  needs  of  the  people  in  order  to  achieve 
that  high  destiny  which  was  the  vision  and  purpose 
of  the  founders. 


President  Edward  Kidder  Graham 

This  high  commission,  I  receive  from  the  State  in  a 
spirit  of  deep  and  reverent  confidence  that  does  not 
spring  from  any  thought  of  personal  resource.  If  all 
of  the  wealth  of  treasured  memory  and  hope  that  this 
institution  represents  were  an  individual  responsibility, 
it  would  be  a  burden  too  heavy  to  be  borne ;  but  this 
great  company  of  her  sons,  and  her  kindred,  and  her 
friends  is  testimony  to  the  wide  and  loyal  fellowship 
of  learning  that  hedges  her  securely  round  about,  and 

56  ®f)e  Jf unction  of  tfje  ^tate  ^nibetsitp 

makes  the  individual  heart  strong  enough  for  anything. 
Nor  less  reassuring,  as  the  standard  passes  to  an  un- 
tried hand,  is  the  host  of  happy  thoughts  released  by 
the  presence  of  those  who  since  the  reopening  gave 
themselves  to  her  guidance  in  wisdom  and  complete 
devotion.  To  them  today  the  institution  pays  the  per- 
fect tribute  of  her  abundant  life  that  they  gave  their 
strength  to  promote :  to  her  latest  leader,  the  architect 
of  her  material  rebuilding,  whose  wise  and  patient  care 
inwrought  into  her  standard  the  ideals  of  modern 
scholarship;  to  his  predecessor,  whose  sympathetic  in- 
sight and  statesmanlike  vision  gave  eloquent  expres- 
sion to  the  voiceless  aspiration  of  his  people  and  made 
him  their  interpreter,  both  to  themselves  and  to  the  na- 
tion ;  to  his  predecessor,  whose  aggressive  and  brilliant 
leadership  performed  the  essential  service  of  making 
the  University  a  popular  right  and  privilege;  to  his 
predecessor — the  historian  of  her  heroic  past,  on  whose 
heart  each  syllable  of  her  story  is  written — who  lived 
through  a  period  of  bitterness  without  a  hate,  who 
endured  poverty  without  a  regret,  achieved  honor 
without  pride,  and  who  now  so  deeply  shares  the  eter- 
nal youth  about  him  that  age  finds  him  with  a  heart  so 
young  and  a  life  so  full  of  affection  and  praise  that  he 
is  the  witness  of  his  own  immortality. 

As  the  mind  dwells  on  all  of  this  exalted  loyalty  and 
unselfish  devotion,  once  again  persons,  even  the  most 
heroic,  fade  into  the  background  of  the  cause  that 
evoked  their  heroisms,  and  our  present  ceremonial  be- 
comes less  the  installation  of  an  individual  than  a 
reverent  and  passionate  dedication  of  all  of  us  and  all 

Cfie  Winiiitvsiitp  of  J^rtfj  Carolina  57 

of  the  energies  and  powers  of  all  of  us  to  the  civiliza- 
tion that  the  institution  exists  to  serve. 

The  life  of  this  institution  began  with  the  life  of  the 
nation  itself ;  and  the  period  since  its  rebirth  in  1875 
is  the  great  period  of  national  construction.  In  these 
forty  years  the  nation  was  caught  up  in  the  giant's 
swing  of  its  material  release,  and  through  the  ex- 
ploitation and  development  of  its  natural  resources, 
through  immigration,  invention,  industrial  combina- 
tion, and  commercial  expansion  constructed  a  civiliza- 
tion startling  and  wonderful  in  the  things  it  fashioned, 
in  the  type  of  constructive  genius  it  elicited,  in  the  new 
tyrannies  and  ideals  it  evolved.  In  this  notable  half- 
century,  all  America  became,  in  the  summarizing 
phrase  of  Mr.  Wells,  "one  tremendous  escape  from 
ancient  obsessions  into  activity  and  making."  Its  lib- 
erated energies  drew  from  the  wealth  of  the  continent 
material  achievements  and  qualities  of  a  sort  un- 
matched in  the  history  of  civilization,  through  which 
it  became,  in  its  own  brave  acclaim  of  conquest  and 
creation,  "triumphant  democracy." 

The  section  that  this  institution  served  was  only 
partly  affected  by  this  great  expansion ;  but  for  it,  too, 
the  period  is  more  than  anything  else  a  period  of  con- 
struction and  making.  In  the  last  ten  years  of  the  ex- 
istence of  this  institution  before  the  war,  the  wealth  of 
the  South  was  about  one-half  that  of  the  whole  coun- 
try. In  these  ten  years,  its  wealth  increased  one  billion 
dollars  more  than  that  of  New  England  and  the  Mid- 
dle States  combined.  In  1875,  when  the  University 
began  its  life  over  again,  the  whole  South  was  bank- 

58  ^^t  Jf unction  of  tlje  ^tate  Winihtvsiitv 

In  these  forty  years  of  material  rebuilding  it  too  has 
escaped  from  ancient  obsessions  not  a  few,  and  has 
won,  in  patience  and  fortitude  under  the  austere  dis- 
cipline of  a  fierce,  unequal  struggle,  not  only  the  spir- 
itual compensations  of  the  struggle,  but  material  lib- 
eration that  is  not  a  promise  but  an  immediate  reality. 
And  while  it  is  under  the  thrill  of  the  prosperity  with- 
in its  grasp,  it  is  not  primarily  because  in  the  past  ten 
years  its  bank  deposits  and  the  capital  invested  in  its 
manufactures  have  increased  ten  fold,  that  half  of  the 
nation's  exports  originate  in  its  ports,  that  a  world 
treasure  hidden  in  its  oil,  gas,  coal,  iron,  water-power, 
and  agriculture  makes  certain  the  fact  that  the  next 
great  expansion  in  national  life  will  be  here  and  that 
here  will  be  "the  focusing  point  of  the  world's  com- 
merce" ;  the  summons  that  puts  the  eager  and  pro- 
phetic tone  in  Southern  life  today  is  the  consciousness 
that  here  under  circumstances  pregnant  with  happy 
destiny  men  will  make  once  more  the  experiment  of 
translating  prosperity  in  terms  of  a  great  civilization. 
It  is  to  leadership  in  this  supreme  adventure  of  demo- 
cratic commonwealth  building  that  the  universities  of 
the  South  are  called,  and  their  real  achievements  de- 
pend upon  the  sure  intelligence,  sympathy  and  power, 
with  which  they  perform  their  vital  function,  and 
make  authoritative  answer  to  the  compelling  question 
of  the  people  as  to  "what,  if  anything,  in  the  way  of 
clear  guidance  you  have  to  offer,  or  must  we  look  to 
another  ?" 

An  institution  to  express  and  minister  to  the  high- 
est aspirations  of  man  was  an  immediate  provision  of 
the  founders  of  the  first  states  of  the  new  republic. 

Cfje  Wini\)tx^itv  of  i^rtlj  Carolina  59 

It  was  a  part  of  the  organic  law  of  North  Carolina, 
and  the  University  of  North  Carolina  was  the  first  of 
the  state  universities  to  be  chartered,  followed  quickly 
by  those  of  Georgia  and  South  Carolina.  Thev  were 
fostered,  however,  not  by  the  whole  people,  but  by 
groups  of  devoted  men  who  sought  to  have  them  per- 
form for  the  new  country  the  noble  service  of  the 
historic  colleges  of  the  old.  It  was  the  author  of  the 
Declaration  of  Independence  who  by  faith  saw  in  the 
new  country  a  new  civilization  with  a  new  philosophy, 
and  who  saw  implicit  in  that  a  new  institution  for  its 
realization.  Jefferson  sought  to  create  in  the  univer- 
sity of  the  state  an  institution  that  would  not  only 
through  traditional  culture  values  give  to  the  state 
"legislators,  and  judges  .  .  .  and  expound  the 
principles  and  structure  of  government,"  but  would 
also,  "harmonize  and  promote  the  interests  of  agricul- 
ture, manufacture  and  commerce,  and  by  well  formed 
views  of  political  economy  give  free  course  to  public 
industry."  In  addition  to  the  traditional  models  then 
existent  he  advocated  an  institution  that  would  meet 
all  the  needs  of  all  of  the  state,  and  to  this  end  planned 
courses  in  manual  training,  engineering,  agriculture, 
horticulture,  military  training,  veterinary  surgery,  and 
for  schools  of  commerce,  manufacturing,  and  diplom- 
acy, and  in  the  details  of  its  administration  he  planned 
to  keep  it  flexible  and  responsive  to  the  people's  need. 

But  in  spite  of  this  splendid  programme  the  state 
university  could  not  come  into  its  own  in  the  South, 
nor  for  a  hundred  years  be  realized  anywhere.  The 
great  American  idea  that  Jefferson  conceived  had  to 
wait  until  America  itself  could  come  into  being,  and 

60  Cf)e  ^function  of  tije  ^tate  Wini\itv^itp 

the  mission  of  interpretative  leadership  passed  to  other 
hands,  as  the  section  which  gave  it  birth  lost  contact 
with  the  spirit  of  national  life. 

The  evolution  of  the  American  state  university  dur- 
ing the  past  hundred  years  is  the  record  of  the  gradual 
fulfiHing  of  Jefferson's  splendid  vision.  It  represents 
the  vital  history  of  the  contribution  of  nineteenth-cen- 
tury America  to  the  progress  of  mankind.  The  diffusion 
of  wealth  and  knowledge,  geographical  and  scientific 
discovery,  new  inventions  and  new  ideals,  not  only  put 
a  power  and  a  passion  into  material  making  and  con- 
struction, but  they  fashioned  institutions  of  training  in 
whatever  vocation  the  all-conquering  hand  of  mater- 
ialism demanded,  and  these  as  they  developed  were 
added  to  those  that  other  civilizations  had  created.  To 
the  institutions  that  seek  to  express  man's  inner  life 
and  his  relations  to  the  past  and  the  fixity  of  those  re- 
lations, it  added  institutions  that  interpret  his  outer 
life,  his  relation  to  the  present  and  his  infinite  capacity 
for  progress.  It  seeks  to  reassert  for  present  civiliza- 
tion what  past  civilizations  say  to  America,  together 
with  what  America  has  to  say  for  itself.  Through  its 
colleges  of  liberal  arts,  pure  and  applied  science,  pro- 
fessional and  technical  schools  it  repeats  the  culture 
messages  of  the  prophets  of  the  nineteenth  century: 
Arnold's  message  of  sweetness  and  light;  Huxley's 
message  of  the  spirit  of  inquiry,  and  Carlyle's  message 
of  the  spirit  of  work. 

Is  this  grouping,  then,  of  the  college  of  culture,  the 
college  of  research,  the  college  of  vocation  into  a  com- 
partmental  organization  of  efficient  and  specialized 
parts,  supplemented  by  the  idea  of  centering  its  energy 

Wi^t  Winibtv^it^  of  i^ortfj  Carolina  6i 

and  ingenuity  in  putting  all  of  its  resources  directly  at 
the  service  of  all  the  people — is  this  the  ultimate 
thought  of  this  greatest  institution  of  the  modern  state, 
and  is  its  future  to  be  concerned  merely  with  perfect- 
ing these  parts  and  further  extending  their  utility? 

Culture  as  learning,  science  as  investigation,  and  work 
as  utility,  each  has  an  eternal  life  of  its  own,  and  to 
perfect  each  of  them  for  the  performance  of  its  special 
work  will  always  be  an  aim  of  the  university.  But 
this  conception  of  its  function  as  a  university  is  neces- 
sarily partial  and  transitional.  Tyndall,  in  his  great 
Belfast  address  made  in  1874,  points  out  that  it  is  not 
through  science,  nor  through  literature  that  human 
nature  is  made  whole,  but  through  a  fusion  of  both. 
Through  its  attempt  to  make  a  new  fusion  of  both 
with  work  during  the  great  constructive  years  of  the 
past  half-century,  our  civilization  has  caught  the  im- 
pulse of  a  new  culture  center.  It  is  this  that  the  state 
university  seeks  to  express.  It  is  more  than  an  aggre- 
gate of  parts.  As  a  university  it  is  a  living  unity,  an 
organism  at  the  heart  of  the  living  democratic  state,  in- 
terpreting its  life,  not  by  parts,  nor  by  a  summary  of 
parts,  but  wholly, — fusing  the  functions  of  brain  and 
heart  and  hand  under  the  power  of  the  immortal  spirit 
of  democracy  as  it  moves  in  present  American  life  to 
the  complete  realization  of  what  men  really  want.  The 
real  measure  of  its  power  will  be  whether,  discarding 
the  irrelevancies  of  the  past  and  present,  it  can  focus, 
fuse,  and  interpret  their  eternal  verities  and  radiate 
them  from  a  new  organic  center  of  culture.  This,  let 
it  tentatively  define  as  achievement  touched  by  fine 

62  tS^^t  Jf  unction  of  tfie  ^tate  tinibersiitp 

feeling — as  truth  alive  and  at  work  in  the  world  of 
men  and  things. 

Such  new  centers  are  the  vital  source  of  civilization, 
and  the  propulsive  power  of  progress.  Every  now  and 
then  in  human  history  men  make  a  synthesis  of  their 
ideals,  giving  redirection  and  increased  projection  to 
their  energies  on  new  and  higher  levels  of  achieve- 
ment. Truly  great  creative  periods  thus  result  from 
the  liberation  of  men  through  new  revelations  of 
deeper  and  richer  values  in  their  new  relations.  Class- 
ical learning  gave  Europe  such  a  period  in  the  Renais- 
sance; science  gave  the  modern  world  such  a  period, 
each  expressing  itself  through  a  great  educational  in- 
stitution, typifying  the  union  of  past  ideals  into  a  new 
center  of  reality.  The  American  state  university  of 
the  twentieth  century  is  an  organism  of  the  produc- 
tive state,  striving  to  express  in  tangible  realities  the 
aspirations  of  present  democracy,  as  it  adjusts  itself 
to  the  liberations  of  a  new  humanism. 

The  evolution  of  the  democratic  state  in  the  past 
hundred  years  as  an  attempt  to  actualize  in  human  so- 
ciety the  principles  of  liberty,  equality,  and  brother- 
hood is  parallel  to  that  of  the  state  university.  Tra- 
ditional ideals  and  institutions  it,  too,  inherited  that 
it  could  not  wilfully  discard ;  new  ideals  it,  too,  as- 
pired to  that  it  could  not  immediately  achieve.  Its  con- 
tinental task  of  "construction  and  making"  made  the 
production  of  material  values  its  necessary  concern. 
The  incarnation  of  the  great  anti-feudal  power  of  com- 
merce was  inevitable,  not  only  to  break  the  bonds  of 
the  "ancient  obsessions,"  but  to  open  through  its  ma- 
terial  might   railways,   steamship   lines,   canals,   tele- 

Wf)t  Wini\}tv9iitp  of  i^ortf)  Carolina  63 

graph  and  telephone  systems,  good  roads,  school 
houses  and  libraries,  as  avenues  to  liberation.  In 
its  development  it  created  its  own  abnormal  stand- 
ards and  tyrannies,  and  became  so  obsessed  with  ma- 
terial freedom  that  equality  seemed  a  contradiction 
and  co-operation  the  vision  of  a  dreamer.  Its  life 
was  individualistic,  compartmental,  and  fiercely  com- 
petitive. Its  ideal  was  efficiency;  its  criterion,  divi- 
dends ;  but  present  democracy,  if  it  has  not  yet  fo- 
cused the  light  of  the  new  center  toward  which  it 
moves,  is  steadily  illumined  by  it.  Democracy  has 
come  to  mean  more  than  an  aggregate  of  vocations, 
grouped  for  the  purpose  of  material  exploitation.  The 
whole  effort  of  the  productive  state  is  to  unify  its  life, 
not  by  casting  out  material  good,  but  by  interpreting 
and  using  it  in  its  symmetrical  upbuilding. 

Great  progress  toward  making  the  state  a  co- 
operative organism  in  the  equal  distribution  of  all 
the  elements  of  life  to  all  according  to  their  capac- 
ity, has  been  made  in  the  evolution  of  business  it- 
self. "Business  is  business"  is  no  longer  its  ulti- 
mate thought.  In  perfecting  its  parts  for  efficiency 
it  discovered,  not  merely  the  value  of  co-operation 
in  the  individual  business,  but  in  the  larger  aggre- 
gates of  material  expansion,  that  the  co-operation  of 
manufactures,  commerce,  and  agriculture  is  neces- 
sary to  prosperity,  and  that  the  weakness  of  one  is 
the  weakness  of  all.  It  has  come  to  see  in  addition 
to  this  extensive  unity,  an  intensive  unity  in  its 
dependence  on  knowledge,  science,  and  ethics  ;  and  more 
deeply  still  that  the  organic  center  of  all  of  its  actions 
and  interactions  for  liberating  its  efficiency  and  its  life 

64  tKije  Jf  unction  of  t^e  ^tate  ?HnibersJitp 

to  a  higher  level  of  productivity  is  in  raising  the  pro- 
ductivity of  all  of  the  men  engaged  in  it  by  liberating 
all  of  their  wholesome  faculties.  Scientific  manage- 
ment, which  will  in  the  present  century  mark  as  great 
progress  in  production  as  the  introduction  of  ma- 
chinery did  in  the  past  century,  shifts  the  main  em- 
phasis of  production  from  the  machine  to  the  worker. 
The  new  freedom  in  whatever  form — in  business,  poli- 
tics, religion,  and  philosophy — is  a  manifestation  of  the 
effort  of  democracy  to  establish  the  supremacy  of  hu- 
man values,  and  so  to  make  of  itself  the  creative,  spir- 
itual organism  it  must  be.  From  this  new  center  of 
constructive  co-operation,  it  is  already  in  its  effort  to 
abolish  ignorance,  poverty,  disease,  and  crime,  sending 
confident  premonitions  of  fuller  life  and  new  and 
braver  reconstructions.  The  productive  democratic 
state  would  make  of  itself  an  organism,  by  making  its 
compartmental  life  a  union  of  all  of  its  parts,  as  the 
nation  made  of  the  states  a  territorial  union.  It  would 
perfect  the  parts  through  the  stronger,  fuller  life  of 
the  whole;  it  would  lose  none  of  the  good  of  individual 
initiative  and  material  success,  but  would  translate  it 
all  into  the  whole  terms  of  higher  human  values.  It 
cries  with  the  creative  joy  of  spent  life  renewed: 

"All  good  things  are  ours, 
Nor  soul  helps  flesh  more 
Than  flesh  helps  soul". 

The  state  university  is  the  instrument  of  democracy 
for  realizing  all  of  these  high  and  healthful  aspirations 
of  the  state.  Creating  and  pro-created  by  the  state  it 
has  no  immediate  part,  however,  in  a  specific  social 
programme.    Its  service  is  deeper  and  more  pervasive. 

Cfie  ZHnibersiitp  of  i^ortf)  Carolina  65 

It  sees  its  problem  as  positive,  not  negative;  as  one  of 
fundamental  health,  not  of  superficial  disease.  It  looks 
on  the  state  as  a  producer ;  not  as  a  policeman.  It  is 
not  so  much  concerned  with  doing  a  certain  set  of 
things,  as  infusing  the  way  of  doing  all  things  with  a 
certain  ideal.  Not  by  spasmodic  reform,  nor  by  senti- 
ment, nor  by  the  expiations  of  philanthropy;  but  by 
understanding,  criticism,  research  and  applied  knowl- 
edge it  would  reveal  the  unity  of  the  channels  through 
which  life  flows,  and  minister  to  the  purification  of  its 
currents.  It  would  conceive  the  present  state  and  all 
of  its  practical  problems  as  the  field  of  its  service,  but 
it  would  free  the  term  service  from  the  narrowing  con- 
struction of  immediate  practice.  The  whole  function 
of  education  is  to  make  straight  and  clear  the  way  for 
the  liberation  of  the  spirit  of  men  from  the  tyranny  of 
place  and  time,  not  by  running  away  from  the  world, 
but  by  mastering  it.  The  university  would  hold  to  the 
truth  of  practical  education  that  "no  knowledge  is  worth 
while  that  is  not  related  to  the  present  life  of  man;  it 
would  reject  its  error  that  only  knowledge  of  nearby 
things  has  such  a  relation"  ;it  would  hold  to  the  truth  of 
classical  education  (I  quote)  that  "things  high  and  far 
away  often  bestow  best  control  over  things  that  are  de- 
tailed and  near,"  and  reject  its  error  of  concluding  that 
because  certain  things  are  high  and  distant  they  must 
possess  that  power.  It  would  emphasize  the  fact  that 
research  and  classical  culture  rightly  interpreted  are  as 
deeply  and  completely  service  as  any  vocational  ser- 
vice ;  but  it  would  consider  their  service  too  precious  to 
be  confined  in  cloisters  and  sufficiently  robust  to  in- 
habit the  walks  of  men.    The  whole  value  of  univer- 

66  tKlje  Jfunttion  ot  tfje  ^tate  ^nibers(itp 

sity  extension  depends  upon  the  validity  of  the  purity 
and  power  of  the  spirit  of  the  truth  from  which  it  is 
derived.  Extension  it  would  interpret,  not  as  thinly 
stretching  out  its  resources  to  the  state  boundaries  for 
purposes  of  protective  popularity,  nor  as  carrying 
down  to  those  without  the  castle  gates  broken  bits  of 
learning;  but  as  the  radiating  power  of  a  new  passion, 
carrying  in  natural  circulation  the  unified  culture  of 
the  race  to  all  parts  of  the  body  politic.  It  would  in- 
terpret its  service,  not  as  sacrifice;  but  as  life,  the 
normal  functioning  of  life  as  fruitful  and  fundamental 
as  the  relation  between  the  vine  and  the  branches. 

It  is  this  organic  relation  to  the  democratic  state 
that  puts  the  Southern  state  university  at  the  vital  cen- 
ter of  the  state's  formative  material  prosperity.  "What 
are  Southern  universities  doing,"  asks  a  great  indus- 
trial leader,  "to  give  economic  independence  to  South- 
ern industry?"  It  is  a  fair  challenge,  and  the  state 
university  joyfully  acknowledges  its  obligation  fully 
to  meet  it.  It  is  a  part  of  the  business  of  laboratories 
to  function  in  the  productive  state  by  solving  the  prob- 
lems of  embarrassed  industry.  Science  has  so  faith- 
fully performed  this  obligation  that  the  main  arch  of 
modern  industry  rests  on  the  laboratory.  Applied  sci- 
ence no  less  truly  rests  on  pure  science  and  the  liber- 
ating currents  of  the  spirit  of  inquiry  and  investigation 
that  is  the  vital  spark  of  modern  life.  The  first  great 
step  in  the  independence  of  Southern  industry  will  be 
the  realization  of  its  dependence.  Our  whole  electrical 
power  liberation,  significant  now  in  achievement  and 
thrilling  in  prophecy,  is  the  co-operation  of  a  hundred 
forces,  the  most  important  of  which  is  the  vital  force 

trte  Winibtxsiitv  of  Movtf)  Carolina  67 

of  unknown  investigators  whose  labor  and  spirit 
opened  the  current  to  the  wheels  of  productive  indus- 
try. "If,"  says  Walter  Bagehot,  "it  had  not  been  for 
quiet  people  who  sat  still  and  studied  the  sections  of 
the  cone,  if  other  quiet  people  had  not  sat  still  and 
worked  out  the  doctrine  of  chances  ...  ;  if  star 
gazers  had  not  watched  long  and  carefully  the  mo- 
tions of  the  heavenly  bodies,  our  modern  astronomy 
would  have  been  impossible,  and  without  our  as- 
tronomy our  ships,  our  colonies,  our  seamen,  and 
all  that  makes  modern  life  could  not  have  existed." 
The  aniline  dye  industry  of  Germany  is  not  the 
product  of  the  clever  alchemy  of  a  laboratory  merely. 
It  is  the  logical  result  of  a  great  state  replacing 
through  its  university  "by  intellectual  forces  the 
physical  forces  lost  by  war."  It  is  the  result,  too, 
of  the  fusion  with  this  of  industrial  statesmanship; 
the  result  of  a  mastery  of  industry's  extensive  and  in- 
tensive relations  in  economic  law,  foreign  commerce, 
science,  and  diplomacy.  "Foreign  trade,"  says  the 
Secretary  of  Commerce,  "begins  inside  a  man's  head, 
in  the  shape  of  knowledge  of  the  country  to  which  he 
would  sell, — its  customs,  finances,  language,  weights, 
measures  and  business  methods."  The  state  university 
would  make  clear  the  fact  that  in  its  relation  to  South- 
ern industry,  while  it  regards  every  practical  need  as 
an  opportunity  for  service,  its  still  larger  service  is  in 
making  clear  the  relations  that  radiate  from  industry 
in  concentric  fields  of  knowledge  that  either  enslave  it 
if  they  are  not  understood,  or  liberate  it  in  ever  in- 
creasing life  and  power  if  they  are  understood.  And 
their  chief  liberation  is  the  setting  free  of  the  master  of 

68  Cije  ^function  of  tfie  ^tate  Winihttiitp 

industry  himself.  All  industry  that  is  worthy  of  ab- 
sorbing a  man's  life  is  in  the  grasp  of  world  re- 
lations and  under  the  grim  test  of  world  standards. 
Any  work  that  does  evoke  a  man's  full  faculties  in 
mastering  its  relations  is  worthy  work.  So  it  is  the 
function  of  the  university,  not  merely  to  bring  its  re- 
sources to  bear  in  solving  practical  problems  of  in- 
dustry and  discovering  through  its  inner  relations  the 
field  of  Southern  industry  as  a  field  of  statesmanship, 
but  in  discovering  thereby  the  further  truth  that  in 
perfecting  its  relations  it  becomes  a  liberal  vocation  in 
saving  the  man  and  all  of  his  higher  faculties,  not  from 
business,  but  through  business.  Salvation  will  come 
there  or  nowhere.  The  question  for  Southern  in- 
dustry is  whether  in  the  world  opportunity  that  opens 
ahead,  it  will  attempt  the  futile  experiment  of  becom- 
ing big  through  superficial  and  selfish  efficiency,  or 
whether  through  a  mastery  of  all  of  its  relations, 
while  becoming  big  it  will  also  become  great. 

One  of  the  belated  visions  of  Southern  business  and 
educational  statesmanship  is  that  we  can  have  here  no 
full  prosperity  or  civilization  unless  agriculture  is 
made  truly  productive.  In  our  individualistic,  political 
and  economic  life  we  have  flattered  it,  ignored  it,  or  ex- 
ploited it.  We  have  lately  awakened  to  the  fact  that  it 
is  an  almost  dead  center  at  the  heart  of  Southern  prog- 
ress, and  we  have  had  the  vision  that  it  is  our  function 
to  co-operate  with  it  fully  and  wholly.  It  is  inevitable 
that  society's  need  will  make  farming  efficient  as  a 
business.  In  bringing  this  about  one  of  two  processes 
is  possible:  that  it  be  developed  as  other  great  busi- 
nesses are,  with  routine  skilled  labor  under  captains  of 

tirije  Wim\itviiitv  of  J^rtfi  Carolina  69 

industry ;  or  that  it  be  made  a  liberal  human  vocation, 
each  farm  home  the  center  of  a  whole  and  wholesome 
life,  and  perfecting  the  development  of  a  definite  and 
complete  civilization.  What  will  make  it  realize  its 
higher  destiny  will  not  be  a  limited  view  of  it  as  a 
manual  vocation.  It  is  a  manual  vocation,  and  as  such 
should  be  trained  to  the  highest  human  efficiency  as  a 
producer  of  wealth.  It  must  be  more  deeply  inter- 
preted, however,  if  it  is  to  attract  and  hold  men  of 
energy  and  initiative.  In  its  relation  to  nature,  to  the 
applied  sciences,  to  economics,  and  the  social  sciences 
agriculture  has  relations  that  put  it  on  the  full  current 
of  the  forces  that  make  for  human  culture  through 
right  relations  to  it  as  work  by  evoking,  not  only  pros- 
perity from  the  soil,  but  the  higher  faculties  of  the 
man  himself, — making  of  the  cropper,  the  farmer ; 
and  of  the  farmer,  man-on-the-farm. 

The  reality  of  the  state  university's  power  to  liberate 
the  faculties  and  aspirations  of  the  workers  in  the  pro- 
ductive state  depends  on  the  force  of  that  power  as 
generated  in  it  as  an  association  of  teachers  and  stu- 
dents, given  wholly  to  the  pursuit  of  truth  and  free 
from  the  distractions  of  making  a  living.  The  heart 
of  this  association,  the  college  of  liberal  arts  and  sci- 
ences, has  as  its  mission  now  as  always  to  reveal 
the  full  meaning  of  life  in  its  broad  and  general  re- 
lations, and  to  fix  in  the  heart  of  its  youth  a  point  of 
outlook  on  the  field  of  human  endeavor  from  which  to 
see  it  clearly  and  to  see  it  whole.  It  fears  no  criticism 
based  on  an  interpretation  of  its  mission  as  "imprac- 
tical" ;  but  it  does  regard  as  fatal  any  failure  to  evoke 
the  best  powers  of  its  own  student  body.     President 

70  Kf)t  Jf  unction  of  t^e  ^tate  ?Hnibersiitj» 

Wilson  has  spoken  of  present  undergraduate  life  as 
"a  non-conducting  medium"  of  intellectual  discipline, 
and  President  Pritchett  sums  up  all  possible  condem- 
nation when  he  says  that  it  is  an  organization  where 
conditions  within  are  such  that  success  in  the  things 
for  which  it  stands  no  longer  appeals  to  those  within 
it.  Failure  to  appeal  may  not  be  laid  to  the  curricu- 
lum, nor  the  spirit  of  youth,  nor  to  the  spirit  of  the  age. 
The  things  for  which  it  stands  in  the  mastery  of 
fact,  the  mastery  of  method,  and  in  spiritual  tone  will 
come  not  because  they  are  latent  in  Greek  or  in  phy- 
sics; but  because  they  are  made  luminous  there 
through  a  revelation  of  the  broad  and  liberal  relations 
of  these  studies  to  the  life  curiosities  of  the  student. 
A  course  in  Greek  may  be  as  narrowing  and  as  blight- 
ing to  a  thirsty  spirit  as  a  dissertation  in  mediaeval  the- 
ology; a  liberal  arts  curriculum  at  its  conclusion  may 
be  in  the  mind  of  the  young  graduate  not  more  impres- 
sively unified  and  tangible  than  the  wreckage  of  a  once 
passionate  contest  between  literature  and  science.  The 
line  of  memory  and  repetition  is  the  line  of  least  re- 
sistance to  student  and  teacher  as  it  is  in  the  dead  rou- 
tine of  every  field  of  effort;  but  the  liberal  arts  course 
is  not  a  mechanical  contrivance  for  standardizing  the 
crude  material  fed  to  it.  It  is  the  life  history  of  the 
human  spirit  and  its  wonderful  adventures  in  the 
world,  unrolled  to  the  eye  of  aspiring  youth  setting 
out  on  its  wonderful  adventure.  For  this  great  busi- 
ness of  touching  the  imagination  and  stirring  the  soul 
to  original  activity,  no  formulas  nor  technique  how- 
ever conscientious  will  serve.  For  liberal  training  to 
make  its   connections,   eager  sympathetic  interpreta- 

Cfje  Wini\}txfiitp  of  i^ortf)  Carolina  7i 

tion  is  necessary,  "with  thought  like  an  edge  of  steel 
and  desire  like  a  flame."  From  the  center  of  every  sub- 
ject runs  the  vital  current  of  its  inner  meaning,  and 
from  all  subjects  in  the  curriculum  in  converging  lines 
to  the  heart  of  our  present  civilization  and  its  culture 
message.  Intellectual  discipline,  special  insights,  and 
"success  in  the  thing  for  which  it  stands"  will  appeal 
to  those  within,  not  by  means  of  new  subjects  added 
with  the  thought  of  gaining  interest  nor  by  repeating 
the  assertion  that  the  old  subjects  ought  to  have  cultural 
appeal,  but  by  having  the  thing  for  which  it  stands 
radiantly  and  constantly  clear  to  itself  and  the  touch- 
stone of  its  activities.  It  is  the  incarnation  in  the  in- 
dividual of  the  spirit  of  the  institution  as  it  focuses 
and  reflects  the  inmost  message  of  the  age.  This  is  the 
source  of  the  student's  special  insights,  his  scent  for 
reality,  and  their  fruitage  is  that  productive  thinking 
that  is  the  supreme  test  of  the  college. 

The  association  of  teacher  and  student  in  the  profes- 
sional schools  must  have  the  same  unifying  point  of 
view.  Widely  separated  as  the  professional  schools 
are  in  subject  matter,  they  have  not  only  a  common 
scientific  method  and  spirit  in  their  pursuit,  but  a  com- 
mon culture  center  in  their  larger  human  relations. 
Arnold  conceived  of  the  professional  training  given  at 
Cornell  in  the  making  of  engineers  and  architects  as  an 
illustration  of  what  culture  is  not.  The  criterion  of  the 
American  state  university  is  not  a  matter  of  the  voca- 
tion ;  but  whether  in  making  the  student  efiicient  in  his 
vocation  it  has  focused  through  his  studies  its  own 
inner  light  so  as  to  liberalize  him  as  a  member  of 
democratic  society.    It  is  not  the  function  of  the  uni- 

72  ^U  Jf  ttttttion  of  tije  ^tate  ^nibersit? 

versity  to  make  a  man  clever  in  his  profession  merely. 
That  is  a  comparatively  easy  and  negligible  university 
task.  It  is  also  to  make  vivid  to  him  through  his  pro- 
fession his  deeper  relations — not  merely  proficiency  in 
making  a  good  living,  but  productivity  in  living  a 
whole  life.  The  professions  of  law,  medicine,  the 
ministry,  journalism,  commerce,  and  the  rest  are  es- 
sential to  the  upbuilding  of  a  democratic  common- 
wealth ;  but  they  must  be  interpreted  not  as  adventures 
in  selfish  advancement ;  but  as  enterprises  in  construc- 
tive statesmanship,  liberating  both  the  state  and  the 
man.  It  is  the  function  of  the  university,  not  only  to 
train  men  in  the  technique  of  law,  but  to  lift  them  to  a 
higher  level  of  achievement  by  making  them  living 
epistles  of  social  justice ;  not  only  to  make  clever  prac- 
titioners of  medicine,  but  to  lift  them  into  conserva- 
tors of  the  public  health;  not  merely  to  train  teachers 
in  the  facts  and  the  methods  of  education,  but  to  fire 
them  with  the  conviction  that  they  are  the  productive 
creators  of  a  new  civilization. 

It  recognizes  no  antagonist  in  this  immortal  business 
but  ignorance.  Ignorance  it  conceives  as  the  unpar- 
donable sin  of  a  democracy  and  on  it  in  every  form  it 
would  wage  relentless  warfare.  To  this  end  it  would 
unify  and  co-ordinate  its  whole  system  of  public  edu- 
cation in  a  spiritual  union  of  elementary  schools  and 
secondary  schools,  of  agricultural  and  mechanical  and 
normal  colleges,  of  private  and  denominational  schools 
and  colleges,  all  as  a  means  to  the  end  of  the  great 
commonwealth  for  which  men  have  dreamed  and  died 
but  scarcely  dared  to  hope.  Fully  conscious  of  the 
confusions  of  prejudice  and  the  blind  unreason  of  self- 

W^t  Wini\itxiitv  of  i^rtfj  Carolina  73 

interest  and  greed,  it  is  even  more  conscious  of  the 
curative  powers  of  the  democratic  state  and  its  in- 
domitable purpose  to  be  wholly  free.  So  it  would 
enlist  all  vocations  and  all  professions  in  a  compre- 
hensive, state- wide  programme  of  achieving  as  a  prac- 
tical reality  Burke's  conception  of  the  state  as  "a  part- 
nership in  all  science,  a  partnership  in  all  art,  a  partner- 
ship in  every  virtue  and  in  all  perfection,  and  since 
such  a  partnership  cannot  be  attained  in  one  genera- 
tion, a  partnership  between  all  those  who  are  living, 
and  those  who  are  dead,  and  those  who  are  yet  un- 

This  is  the  understanding  of  the  meaning  of  life 
which  represents  the  highest  level  to  which  men  of  our 
civilization  have  attained — the  highest  good  at  which 
the  state  aims.  The  religious  perception  of  our  time 
in  its  widest  application  is  the  consciousness  that  our 
well-being,  both  material  and  spiritual,  lies  in  in- 
telligent co-operation.  The  state  university  in  its  sym- 
pathetic study  of  relations  that  reconcile  the  divisions 
of  society,  while  not  concerned  with  the  differences  in 
religious  organization,  is  inevitably  and  profoundly 
concerned  with  religion  itself.  All  of  its  study  of  men 
and  things  leads  through  the  co-operating  channels  that 
connect  them  beyond  the  sources  of  immediate  life  to 
the  one  great  unity  that  binds  all  together.  The  human 
mind,  whatever  its  achievement,  in  whatever  fields  of 
endeavor,  "with  the  yearning  of  a  pilgrim  for  its  home, 
will  still  turn  to  the  Mystery  from  which  it  emerged, 
seeking  to  give  unity  to  work  and  thought  and  faith." 
The  state  university  in  its  passionate  effort  to  fashion 
this  unity  into  a  commonwealth  of  truly  noble  propor- 

74  Wbt  ^function  of  t^e  B>Mt  ?Hnibergitj> 

tions  of  work  and  worth  and  worship,  reverently  prays 
as  it  follows  the  star  of  its  faith :  "Oh  God,  I  think 
Thy  thoughts  after  Thee." 

Such  is  the  covenant  of  our  immortal  mother  "with 
those  who  are  living  and  those  who  are  dead  and  those 
who  are  yet  unborn,"  "building  herself  from  im- 
memorial time  as  each  generation  kneels  and  fights  and 
fades."  She  will  hold  secure  her  priceless  heritage 
from  her  elder  sons  as  the  pledge  of  the  faith  she 
keeps ;  and  she  will  cherish  the  passionate  loyalty  of 
her  latest  issue  with  the  sacred  pride  that  only  a 
mother  knows ;  she  will  seek  guidance  above  the  con- 
fusion of  voices  that  cry  out  paths  of  duty  around  her, 
in  the  experience  of  the  great  of  her  kind  the  world 
over;  but  she  will  not,  in  self -contemplation  and  imi- 
tation, lose  her  own  creative  power  and  that  original 
genius  that  alone  gives  her  value  in  the  world.  As  the 
Alma  Mater  of  the  living  State  and  all  of  its  higher 
aspirations  she  would  draw  from  it  the  strength  that 
is  as  the  strength  of  its  everlasting  hills  and  give  an- 
swer in  terms  of  whole  and  wholesome  life  as  fresh  as 
the  winds  of  the  world  that  draw  new  life  from  its 
pine-clad  plains.  Eager,  sympathetic,  unafraid  and 
with  the  understanding  heart  "she  standeth  on  the  top 
of  the  high  places,  by  the  way  in  the  places  of  the  path ; 
she  crieth  out  at  the  entry  of  the  city,  at  the  coming 
in  at  the  doors :  'Unto  you,  O  men,  I  call  and  my  voice 
is  to  the  sons  of  men.' " 

Wtit  WinMxiitv  of  ^ortf)  Carolina  75 



President  George  H.  Denny,  oe  the  University 
OE  Alabama 

On  behalf  of  the  state  universities  of  the  nation  I  am 
glad  to  bring  to  the  University  of  North  Carolina  and 
to  its  great  new  servant  a  message  of  congratulation 
and  good  v^ill.  This  impressive  function  has  meant  to 
many  of  us  an  opportunity  of  making  a  pilgrimage  for 
the  first  time  to  this  charming  spot. 

There  is  something  quite  distinctive  in  the  atmos- 
phere of  this  place  and  in  the  life  of  this  institution. 
Chapel  Hill  is  an  honored  name  in  the  history  of  our 
American  academic  life.  Wherever  that  name  is  pro- 
nounced, it  carries  w^ith  it  the  suggestion  of  high  pur- 
pose and  of  unw^avering  regard  to  spiritual  values. 

I  congratulate  your  new^  leader  that  he  is  to  do  his 
day's  work  on  this  campus  where  sincere  educational 
practice  has  from  the  beginning  prevailed.  There  may 
be,  in  your  college  administration,  room  for  improve- 
ment in  many  directions  and  for  a  higher  order  of 
efficiency  in  many  things ;  but  there  is  one  thing  with 
reference  to  this  institution  which,  despite  all  its  lim- 
itations and  all  its  shortcomings,  may  be  said  without 
fear  of  contradiction,  namely,  that  its  work  is  abso- 
lutely genuine  and  its  ideals  absolutely  correct. 

It  is  true  that  the  University  of  North  Carolina,  in 
common  with  the  other  tax-supported  universities  of 
the  South,  has  never  known  the  exhiliration  of  material 
wealth.    It  is  true  that  she  has  struggled  on,  through 

76  W^t  Jf unction  of  tfje  ^tate  ?Hnibersiit^ 

periods  of  inconceivable  hardship,  shouting  from  every 
housetop  of  opportunity  and  desire,  "Silver  and  gold 
have  I  none."  That  era,  however,  has  passed  into 
history.  Today  we  salute  her  and  bid  her  God-speed 
as  she  stands  serene  upon  the  mount  of  faith  and  op- 

I  congratulate  you.  North  Carolinians,  that  one  of 
your  own  sons,  a  student  in  your  own  University  and 
subsequently  a  student  elsewhere,  has  after  a  series  in 
faithful  service  been  called  to  direct  your  foremost 
seat  of  learning.  Having  siunmoned  him  to  this  great 
task,  who  will  dare  to  deny  to  him  the  sympathy  and 
co-operation  of  a  single  man  who  loves  this  institution 
and  is  striving  to  keep  its  commandments  ? 

Here  let  me  add  that  it  is  no  easy  task  that  President 
Graham  is  today  formally  assuming.  Some  of  us  here 
can  bear  testimony  to  the  fact  that  it  is  a  task  that  de- 
mands courage  and  patience  and  steadfastness  and  de- 
votion. Some  months  ago  one  of  my  friends  was  be- 
ing inaugurated  president  of  the  University  of  Ar- 
kansas. President  Lovett  of  Texas  was  delivering  the 
address  of  greeting.  With  some  feeling  he  repeated 
the  famous  dictum  of  Jowett,  "Never  retract,  never 
explain,  get  the  thing  done,  let  them  howl."  A 
former  president  of  this  institution  once  said  that  the 
only  type  of  college  president  who  makes  no  mistakes 
is  the  type  that  cunningly  succeeds  in  doing  nothing. 

No  intelligent  man  will  dare  question  the  outstanding 
fact  that  the  University  of  North  Carolina  has  minis- 
tered to  the  intellectual  and  spiritual  life  of  this  com- 
monwealth with  a  rare  devotion  and  an  unremitting 
loyalty.     Who  can  measure  the  height  and  the  depth 

etc  ^Hnibergitp  of  ^rtfi  Carolina  77 

of  that  service?  It  has  strengthened  and  sustained 
and  glorified  the  very  fabric  of  your  civiHzation.  With- 
out it  the  most  splendid  chapters  of  your  history  could 
never  have  been  written.  Without  it  the  remarkable 
educational  awakening  that  has  within  a  generation  at- 
tracted national  attention  to  this  State  could  never 
have  been  realized.  Are  you  striving  to  establish  a 
great  school  system  in  North  Carolina?  Hearken  to 
the  words  of  Benjamin  H.  Hill :  "Education  is  like 
water;  to  fructify,  it  must  descend." 

Just  one  word  more:  I  desire  here  and  now  to  ex- 
press the  sense  of  gratitude  that  springs  up  in  my  heart 
as  I  bear  testimony  to  the  great  service  that  this  insti- 
tion  has  rendered  and  is  rendering  in  this  entire  South- 
ern country.  May  it  continue  to  have  a  rich  reward ! 
May  the  years  to  come  clothe  it  with  majesty  and 
power ! 


President  Wili.iam  J.  Martin,  oe  Davidson  College 

Speaking  at  the  bidding  of  the  Committee  of  Ar- 
rangements, for  the  colleges  of  our  State  I  felicitate 
you.  President  Graham,  on  the  honors  which  are  today 
formally  bestowed  upon  you.  That  you  will  wear  them 
worthily  you  have  abundantly  demonstrated.  That 
they  are  well  deserved  your  friends  will  avow.  As  stu- 
dent, teacher,  dean,  and  president  in  this  institution, 
you  have  filled  so  worthily  and  fully  each  lower  po- 
sition that  your  call  to  higher  service  comes  quite 

You  will  not  forget,  and  I  doubt  not  it  has  been  al- 

78  Cfje  Jf  unction  of  tfje  Matt  Winihttiitp 

ready  pressed  home  upon  you,  that  the  honors  of  the 
position  are  necessarily  associated  with  heavy  respon- 
sibihties.  It  is  not  a  bed  of  roses,  where  you  lie;  but 
it  is  a  splendid  vantage  ground  for  service,  self-sacri- 
ficing and  uplifting.  There  is  no  reserve  in  my  belief 
that  you  will  measure  up  to  the  requirements  of  your 
exalted  position. 

The  colleges  of  this  state  are  most  of  them  denomi- 
national in  character  supported  by  private  funds.  They 
are,  however,  as  much  a  part  of  the  educational  life 
and  work  of  the  State  as  is  this  institution.  As  their 
spokesman  I  bring  their  sincerest  good  will  to  the 
University  and  a  hearty  congratulation  to  the  author- 
ities on  their  ability  to  find  among  their  faculty  a 
worthy  successor  of  a  noble  line  of  University  Presi- 
dents, two  of  whom  still  serve  the  University,  one, 
Dr.  Battle,  the  personal  friend  of  my  father,  once  a 
professor  here,  the  other  your  immediate  predecessor, 
Dr.  Venable,  whose  friendship  and  kindly  counsel  I 
prize  most  highly.  Mr.  President,  your  co-workers  in 
the  building  of  manhood  and  in  the  training  of  true 
leadership  within  and  for  the  State  rejoice  with  you 
and  the  friends  of  the  University  over  its  notable  past, 
its  present  efficiency,  and  the  larger  promise  for  use- 
fulness in  the  future. 

Education  is  a  much  abused  term  and  we  are  at  war 
over  educational  standards  and  values.  If,  however, 
we  can  amid  it  all  remember  that  our  chief  concern  in 
College  and  University  is  to  develop  manliness,  an 
earnest  desire  for  truth,  and  a  passion  for  unselfish 
service,  we  shall  not  go  far  astray.  For  the  attain- 
ment of  such  ends  we  can  all  unite,  with  the  assurance 

tE^te  Wini\)tv9iitp  of  ^ortfj  Carolina  79 

that  the  product  will  never  be  a  drug  on  the  market. 
The  world  has  always  had  use  for  a  man.  True,  self- 
forgetful  leadership,  of  high  intellectual  order,  and 
Christian  in  character  was  never  more  needed  in  the 
world  at  large  than  now,  and  the  immediate  future 
will  see  a  largely  increased  demand  for  America's 
product  of  this  kind  and  character.  Your  brethren 
will  confidently  expect  that  this  institution,  born  with 
our  independence,  cradled  in  the  pioneer  days  of  the 
republic,  suffering  with  the  lost  but  well  loved  Con- 
federacy, and  now,  with  our  united  country,  upon  a 
rising  tide  of  progress,  will,  under  your  guidance,  sir, 
yield  its  full  share  of  service  to  the  State  and  nation. 
We  wish  you  and  the  University  the  richest  blessings 
of  the  coming  years. 


Dr.  James  Y.  Joyner,  Superintendent  oe  Public 

You  will  observe.  Ladies  and  Gentlemen,  that  I  ad- 
dress first  the  new  President.  This  was  not  by  acci- 
dent, but  from  deliberate  purpose,  for  henceforth  in 
this  place  in  the  hearts  of  all  sons  of  this  University, 
the  name  of  our  new  President  shall  lead  all  the  rest  in 
honor,  love  and  loyalty. 

The  first  constitution  of  this  free  State  adopted  in 
1776,  in  the  very  decree  for  their  creation,  bound  in 
indissoluble  union  the  public  schools  "for  the  con- 
venient instruction  of  youth"  and  the  University  "for 
the  encouragement  and  promotion  of  all  useful  learn- 

80  Wi}t  Jf  unction  of  tfie  ^tate  Wim\}tx9iitp 

Representing  778,000  children  of  the  North  Caro- 
lina public  schools,  I  bring  greetings  on  this  epoch- 
marking  day  to  the  new  President  of  this  century-old 
University.  As  the  head  of  one  organic  part  of  a  great 
State's  educational  system,  I  bring  a  message  of  good 
will  and  hope  and  cheer  to  the  head  of  another  or- 
ganic part  of  that  system  who  is  this  day  inaugurated 
worthy  successor  of  a  long  line  of  distinguished  and 
devoted  predecessors,  and  fortunate  heir  to  their  suc- 
cessful labors. 

As  parts  of  an  organic  whole,  the  vitality  and  ef- 
fectiveness of  one  part  of  this  educational  system  are 
largely  dependent  upon  the  vitality  and  effectiveness 
of  the  other,  each  must  strengthen  the  other  and  each 
must  serve  the  other. 

You  can  measure  the  power,  the  progress,  the  pros- 
perity of  existing  states  and  nations  by  the  standards, 
efficiency,  and  extent  of  their  educational  systems.  The 
highest  standards,  the  most  efficient  and  extensive  edu- 
cational systems  are  found  in  states  and  nations  that 
endow  and  maintain  the  greatest  universities. 

Upon  this  lovely  hill  among  these  stately  groves 
more  than  a  century  ago,  our  forefathers  set  up  this 
light  of  learning.  Through  the  long  years  it  has  been 
shining  here  in  beauty  and  in  benediction,  throwing 
its  beams  into  the  remotest  corners  of  the  State  and 
far  out  into  other  states,  kindling  kindred  lights  in 
myriads  of  hamlets  and  homes  and  schools,  brighten- 
ing and  broadening  the  lives  of  multitudes  of  men. 

Into  your  keeping,  Mr.  President,  has  been  com- 
mitted this  light.     Under  your  watchful  care,  may  it 

W^t  Wini^txiitv  of  i^ortfj  Carolina  si 

shine  on  through  the  years  to  come  with  a  farther, 
brighter,  steadier,  whiter  Hght. 

From  the  keepers  of  the  lesser  Hghts  of  learning  in 
eight  thousand  public  schools,  I  bring  you  assurance 
of  hearty  co-operation  in  the  performance  of  your 
noble  task  and  express  for  them  the  confident  belief 
that  they  shall  receive  increased  and  ever  increasing 
stimulation  and  inspiration  from  this  University  under 
your  guidance. 


George  Stephens,  of  the  Class  op  1896 

In  one  of  his  notable  addresses  Phillips  Brooks  made 
the  statement  that  the  most  inspiring  thing  in  the 
world  to  him  was  to  see  a  high-minded,  capable  man 
successfully  grapple  with  some  problem  of  vital  con- 
sequence to  his  day  and  generation.  We  are  here  to- 
day to  celebrate  just  that  sort  of  an  inspiring  fact.  A 
man  has  been  called  to  a  great  task,  and  one  worthy 
of  his  powers.  He  comes  not  as  a  last  hope  to  a  failing 
cause  but  rather  as  a  worthy  follower  of  predecessors 
whose  very  success  adds  to  the  responsibility  which  he 
assumes.  But  in  this  greatness  of  responsibility  lies 
greatness  of  opportunity.  While  the  builders  of  this 
institution  have  wrought  with  prophetic  vision  they 
have  "builded  better  than  they  knew,"  and  have  had  a 
large  part  in  the  up-building  of  a  great  commonwealth. 
Through  the  education  of  the  youth  of  the  State  this 
University  has  poured  out  into  the  life  of  both  State 
and  nation  a  constant  stream  of  power  and  influence. 
As  a  result,  vast  new  forces  have  arisen ;  and  to  mar- 

82  Wf)t  jFunction  of  tfie  ^tate  Wini^itxsiitv 

shal  these  forces,  interpret  their  deeper  meaning  and 
give  them  proper  direction  is  a  fine,  big  task. 

The  man  whom  we  particularly  honor  today  has  not 
only  caught  this  vision  of  service  but  has  demonstrated 
that  here,  fitted  to  their  hands  and  ready  for  use,  is  the 
efficient  instrument  by  which  a  State  shall  come  into  a 
better  and  larger  life.  He  has  said  "Your  University 
shall  serve  you."  The  response  has  been  instant  and 
positive,  and  through  the  simplest  and  most  natural 
methods  results  have  been  reached  that  immeasurably 
enrich  the  lives  of  those  whom  this  institution  was  es- 
tablished to  serve.  Thus :  Do  the  farmers  of  a  given 
locality  or  county  want  to  know  why  there  is  so  little 
income  on  their  labor  and  investment?  The  Univer- 
sity causes  an  economic  survey  to  be  made  and  sets 
forth,  with  blue-print  accuracy,  the  causes  and  the 
remedy.  Is  there  need  to  stimulate  public  interest  in 
education?  High  school  debates  are  arranged,  five 
thousand  boys  and  girls  participate  under  a  well-order- 
ed plan,  and  fifty  thousand  citizens  of  the  State  hear 
them.  Result,  a  quickened  sense  of  the  meaning  of 
public  education  and  a  corresponding  forward  step  in 
good  citizenship.  "Ask  here"  is  the  word  that  has 
gone  forth.  But  in  answering,  there  goes  out  from 
this  institution  something  more  than  mere  cold  statis- 
tics from  a  clearing  house  of  information.  The  ear- 
nestness and  zeal  of  those  who  labor  here  are  also  im- 
parted, and  the  fresh  and  stirring  qualities  of  inspira- 
tion put  ordinary  facts  in  their  larger  relations. 

Men  are  made  to  know  that  the  new  road  to  be  built 
out  yonder  in  the  mountains  means  more  than  a  high- 
way with  good  traction,  compensated  curves,  and  bal- 

tlTfje  Wini\itv&itv  ot  i^rtfi  Carolina  83 

anced  grades.  It  will  also  stimulate  school  attendance 
and  church  going,  and  make  easier  those  active  and  in- 
timate social  relations  so  necessary  to  the  development 
of  commuity  life.  Economic  values  are  only  part  of 
the  gain ;  spiritual  values  are  there  also. 

This  masterly  power  to  direct  and  inspire,  combined 
with  the  vision  that  gives  spiritual  interpretation  to 
the  commonplace,  puts  a  new  quality  into  patriotism 
and  tends  to  make  culture  a  common  heritage. 

Mr.  President :  Throughout  the  length  and  breadth 
of  this  land,  and  in  lands  beyond  the  seas,  are  over 
five  thousand  loyal  alumni  for  whom  I  am  privileged 
to  stand,  in  whose  name  I  speak.  There  are  those, 
some  of  whom  are  present,  whose  service  to  the  Uni- 
versity may  be  counted  by  the  half  century.  Through 
them  will  flow  into  you  inspiration  from  the  rich  tra- 
ditions of  the  past.  Others,  well  past  the  meridian  of 
life  but  workers  still,  will  bring  to  you  the  counsel  of 
ripened  experience  in  terms  of  present  day  activities. 
And  here  is  a  vast  throng  that  I  shall  designate  as 
those  belonging  to  your  own  generation;  for  them  I 
shall  say  this,  that  with  you,  shoulder  to  shoulder  and 
heart  to  heart,  we  ask  to  have  a  working  part  in  the 
task  that  you  have  so  auspiciously  begun.  In  spirit 
those  who  are  absent  and  in  person  those  who  are 
here,  share  with  you  the  joy  of  this  notable  occasion, 
when  so  distinguished  a  company  has  gathered  to  speak 
earnest  words  of  greeting  in  fitting  recognition  of  the 
great  honor  that  has  come  to  you.  The  occasion  hon- 
ors, too,  our  Alma  Mater.  Her  life  has  been  your  life, 
you  know  her  needs,  her  problems,  her  opportunities. 
And    now    your    strength,    which    has    become    her 

84  Wi}t  Jf unction  of  tfje  ^tate  Winihtt&it]^ 

strength,  will  find  infinite  renewal  in  the  knowledge 
you  have  of  her  greatness.  To  you  and  to  our  Dear 
Mother,  I  bring  afifectionate  greetings  from  the  alum- 
ni, your  brothers  and  her  sons,  and  here  and  now  we 
pledge  anew  to  you  and  to  her  our  loyalty,  deeper  and 
more  sincere  today  by  reason  of  the  inspiring  vision 
of  her  future  that  your  leadership  has  already  giv- 
en us. 


Thomas  CallEndine  Boushall,  of  the  Class  oe  1915 

In  greeting  our  new  president,  it  is  the  happy  privi- 
lege of  the  student  body  not  to  make  vain  prophecies 
of  this  propitious  occasion,  for  we  have  had  the  pleas- 
ure of  operating  under  his  administration  for  almost 
two  years.  In  that  time  we  have  witnessed  a  wonder- 
ful growth  of  enthusiasm  among  the  students ;  a  far- 
reaching  extension  of  the  University  beyond  the  cam- 
pus walls ;  an  unmatched  spirit  of  co-operation  be- 
tween students  and  faculty. 

There  are  two  secrets  of  his  administration  which  I 
feel  at  liberty  to  mention. 

In  the  very  beginning  he  assured  us  of  our  right  to 
the  exercise  of  the  utmost  freedom.  This  would  have 
been  disastrous  had  he  not  at  the  same  time  come 
among  us  with  teachings  of  the  highest  ideals ;  with  an 
example  of  gentlemanly  conduct  and  standards  of 
Christian  character. 

He  has  given  us  here  the  freedom  of  the  simplest 
democracy  and  he  has  preserved  the  organization  by 

Wi)t  Wini^itviitv  of  i^ortfj  Carolina  85 

teaching  us  to  appreciate,  accept  and  truly  bear  our 
higher  responsibihties. 

The  second  secret  is  his  democratic  co-operation. 
University  freedom  would  have  meant  chaos  if  autoc- 
racy had  been  the  order  of  the  administration,  but  his 
method  has  been  co-operation;  his  attitude  sympa- 
thetic; his  aim  the  fulfilment  of  a  common  purpose. 

In  the  wonderful  extension  of  the  University  over 
the  State,  Mr.  Graham  asked  for  the  organization  of 
the  students  into  county  clubs  for  personal  work; 
while  the  administration  crystallized  the  work  in  send- 
ing out  literature  and  lecturers.  Thus  the  adminis- 
tration and  the  students  made  university  extension. 

There  is  no  hazing  here  today,  not  because  we  fear 
punishment  from  the  administration,  nor  for  fear  of 
infringing  recent  laws,  but  because  each  student  has 
been  taught  to  hold  the  fair  name  of  the  University  in 
reverence  and  its  good  reputation  as  his  own. 

Free  democracy  and  sympathetic  co-operation  are 
the  secrets  by  which  he  has  won  our  hearts  and  our 
love ;  by  which  he  has  inspired  us  to  the  desire  to 
strive  for  the  higher  and  more  complete  ministering  of 
the  University  to  the  needs  of  the  State,  and  of  pro- 
ducing the  highest  type  of  man  to  serve  the  State. 
No  man,  under  his  administration,  will  go  out  from 
the  shadow  of  these  walls,  from  the  shade  of  these 
trees,  and  the  walks  of  this  campus  without  a  broader 
view  of  life;  a  higher  conception  of  his  duty  to  his 
God,  his  fellow-man  and  his  State;  and  a  deeper  at- 
tachment for  those  imbued  with  the  spirit  of  de- 

To  offer  our  loyalty  to  our  new  president  is  super- 

86  Wf)t  Jf unction  of  tfje  ^tate  ?Hnitiergitp 

fluous :  he  has  won  it.  To  pledge  our  support  is  but  a 
form,  for  we  have  accepted  him  as  our  leader.  To 
assure  him  of  our  affection  is  to  question  the  love  of 
brothers.  To  rejoice  upon  this  happy  occasion  is  but 
natural,  and  to  express  our  happiness  is  a  task  of  poets 
— inspired  and  of  laureate  fame. 


Dean  Lucius  PotK  McGehee,  of  the  School  of  Law 

It  is  my  privilege,  Mr.  President,  on  this  occasion, 
in  the  name  of  the  Faculty  of  the  University,  to  con- 
gratulate you  upon  your  formal  induction  into  the 
presidency,  and  to  pledge  to  you  the  loyal  support  and 
hearty  co-operation  of  the  Faculty  in  carrying  out  the 
plans  which  I  know  lie  near  your  heart  for  the  devel- 
opment of  the  University  and  rendering  it  in  a  fuller 
sense  the  head  of  the  official  system  of  education  in 
the  State. 

I  speak  of  "your  formal  induction  into  the  presi- 
dency," but  your  administration  does  not  begin  today. 
For  almost  two  years  as  acting  president  and  as  presi- 
dent the  large  opportunities  and  grave  responsibilities 
of  guiding  the  fortunes  of  the  University  have  rested 
upon  you.  During  that  time  the  steady  growth  of  the 
institution  has  been  maintained — a  growth  not  in  num- 
bers alone  but  in  the  affections  of  the  people  and  in 
usefulness  to  the  State. 

Much  of  this  is  due  to  your  wise  administration  and 
effective  initiative,  and  much  is  due  also  to  the  spirit 
of  the  time.  A  fine  sense  of  mutual  helpfulness  and 
responsibility   is   affecting   every   department   of   our 

tKte  Winiiitvsiitv  of  ^ortt  Carolina  87 

common  life  throughout  State  and  nation.  It  strength- 
ens the  inner  spirit  of  the  University ;  it  permeates  its 
activities ;  it  is  reflected  in  the  kindly  sympathies  of 
those  beyond  our  walls. 

In  the  century  and  a  quarter  of  its  existence,  the 
University  has  experienced  many  times  of  trial  when 
your  predecessors  had  need  of  strong  hearts  and  all 
their  faith  in  the  institution  and  the  great  cause  it  rep- 
resents. They  did  their  work  well  and  bravely,  and 
today,  in  a  happier  time,  on  the  threshold  of  your  ad- 
ministration, we  stand  in  a  springtime  of  promise  with 
larger  capacities  for  service  and  greater  responsibil- 
ities than  ever  before.  But  each  new  period  brings  its 
own  new  difficulties,  and  no  one  knows  so  well  as  you, 
Mr.  President,  the  grave  nature  of  the  problems  which 
confront  us. 

To  solve  these  problems  in  accordance  with  the  new 
spirit  of  the  age,  to  harmonize  the  essential  aristoc- 
racy of  scholarship  and  letters  with  the  democratic 
ideals  which  befit  the  university  of  a  republican  state, 
to  extend  the  benefits  of  the  University  in  an  ever 
widening  circle  among  all  our  citizens  and  to  bring 
home  to  them  helpfully  the  results  of  the  scholarship 
and  research  cultivated  here,  above  all,  to  foster 
among  the  eager  young  men  assembled  about  us  ideals 
of  genuine  scholarship,  true  manhood,  and  helpful 
citizenship — such  seem  to  be  some  of  the  tasks  which 
lie  before  the  University  and  its  Faculty. 

The  trustees  have  wisely  selected  to  direct  in  these 
tasks  a  man  in  the  early  prime  of  intellectual  strength, 
imbued  with  the  newer  spirit  of  the  age,  an  alumnus 

88  Cl)e  Jf unction  of  tfje  ^tate  ^nibersiiti* 

of  the  institution  lovingly   familiar  with  its   special 

That  your  administration,  so  happily  begun,  may  be 
long  and  prosperous  is  the  heartfelt  wish  of  your  as- 
sociates of  the  Faculty,  who  stand  ready  with  you  to 
contribute  the  best  that  is  in  them  to  a  larger,  fuller 
life  for  the  University. 


Bishop  Edward  Rondthai<er,  of  the  Moravian  Church 

The  Lord  bless  you  and  keep  you;  the  Lord  make 
His  face  to  shine  upon  you  and  be  gracious  unto  you ; 
the  Lord  lift  up  His  countenance  upon  you  and  give 
you  peace;  in  the  name  of  Jesus.    Amen. 

Wfnt  Wini^tvUitp  oi  i^rtlj  Carolina  89 


After  the  morning  exercises  in  Memorial  Hall  were 
formally  concluded  with  the  singing  of  the  University 
Hymn  and  the  invocation  by  Bishop  Edward  Rond- 
thaler  of  the  Moravian  Church,  the  delegates  and 
guests  of  the  University  were  entertained  at  a  luncheon 
in  the  new  Commons,  Swain  Hall,  at  two  o'clock.  A 
seven  course  luncheon  was  served,  covers  being  laid 
for  six  hundred  people.  The  central  section  of  the 
hall  was  reserved  for  the  delegates  from  other  insti- 
tutions and  the  faculty  of  the  University. 

At  the  toastmaster's  table  were  seated  the  Hon. 
Josephus  Daniels,  Secretary  of  the  Navy,  Toastmaster ; 
Governor  Locke  Craig ;  President  Graham ;  Dr.  Kemp 
P.  Battle,  Dr.  Edwin  A.  Alderman,  and  Dr.  F.  P. 
Venable  —  former  presidents  of  the  University  of 
North  Carolina;  President  Frank  J.  Goodnow,  of 
Johns  Hopkins  University;  Miss  Marion  Reilly,  Dean 
of  Bryn  Mawr  College;  Hon.  Francis  D.  Winston,  of 
the  Board  of  Trustees;  Bishop  Edward  Rondthaler, 
of  the  Moravian  Church;  Dr.  J.  Y.  Joyner,  Superin- 
tendent of  Public  Instruction;  President  William  T. 
Martin,  of  Davidson  College;  and  President  George 
H.  Denny,  of  the  University  of  Alabama.  Preced- 
ing the  serving  of  the  last  course  of  the  luncheon, 
the  Toastmaster  happily  welcomed  the  guests,  brought 
greetings  from  the  president  of  the  United  States  to 
the  new  president  of  the  University,  and  inaugurated 
a  round  of  genial  and  whole-souled  speech-making 
which  delighted  the  assembled  audience  until  the  con- 
clusion of  the  occasion  at  half-past  five  o'clock. 

90  tlCfje  Jf unction  of  tte  ^tate  Wini\)tv^ity 


The  Toastmaster  prefaced  his  own  remarks  and  his 
introduction  of  the  speakers,  by  delivering  in  a  most 
happy  fashion  the  message  of  greetings  which  he 
brought  from  President  Wilson  to  President  Graham. 
His  opening  remarks  were  felicitous :  "I  am  a  col- 
lege president  myself,"  he  said,  "and  I  come  here  today 
not  as  an  editor,  but  as  a  president,  to  bring  to  this 
company  the  greetings  of  the  great  university  of  the 
United  States  Navy.  When  I  hear  these  distinguished 
gentlemen  talk  about  their  great  universities,  I  am  sur- 
prised that  they  should  call  them  great,  when  I  am 
president  of  a  university  of  60,000  students !" 

Secretary  Daniels  then  read  a  telegram  from  Dr. 
George  Winston,  former  president  of  the  University, 
who  was  prevented  by  illness  from  attending  the  in- 

"I  am  with  you  today  in  spirit,  rejoicing  over  the 
growth  of  the  State  and  the  University.  I  propose  the 
following  toast :  THE  OLD  NORTH  STATE :  May 
each  generation  find  her  a  better  State  to  live  in,  with 
larger  freedom  of  soul  and  wider  mental  horizon ;  and 
may  this  happy  evolution  be  achieved  in  the  future  as 
in  the  past  by  her  noble  University!" 


Governor  Craig,  the  next  speaker,  brought  an  in- 
spiring message  to  the  University.  After  speaking  of 
the  business  depression  throughout  the  State  owing 
to  the  war,  he  went  on :  "And  yet  the  last  legislature 
appropriated  more  towards  the  sustaining  of  the  Uni- 

Cfje  ?Hnitjergit?  of  ^ortt  Carolina  9i 

versity  than  any  legislature  has  ever  appropriated.  It 
shows  that  our  people  are  beginning  to  realize  that  the 
highest  destiny  of  the  State  cannot  be  worked  out  in 
industry  and  in  the  making  of  money  alone,  but  that 
the  accumulation  of  money  and  the  development  of 
industry  is  all  a  failure  unless  it  is  inspired  by  the  high 
and  noble  ideals  that  must  emanate  from  this  Univer- 
sity and  other  institutions  of  learning.  It  is  with  these 
institutions  to  discover  the  alchemy  that  shall  trans- 
form all  industrial  progress  and  all  material  growth 
into  moral  and  intellectual  progress  and  moral  and 
intellectual  growth.  The  school-teacher  has  done  more 
to  propagate  the  altruistic  spirit  in  government  than 
any  president  of  this  great  country.  That  is  a  part  of 
the  destiny  of  this  University,  and  the  people  of  North 
Carolina  are  beginning  to  realize  it.  They  may  not 
have  as  many  students  or  as  big  guns  as  Mr.  Daniels' 
university,  but  it  is  not  guns,  or  numbers,  but  men 
that  count.  This  old  State  has  waked  up,  and  when- 
ever you  get  her  aroused,  she  is  aroused  in  earnest,  and 
she  is  not  going  to  stop  until  this  University  is  put  in 
a  position  to  attain  her  destiny.  All  hail  to  this  day  in 
North  Carolina !" 


The  oldest  ex-president  of  the  University,  Dr.  Kemp 
P.  Battle,  followed,  speaking  in  his  usual  humorous 
and  reminiscent  fashion.  "Being  called  on  to  follow 
the  Secretary  of  the  Navy  and  the  Governor  of  the 
State  has  so  turned  my  head  that  I  do  not  know  where 
I  stand.  I  do  not  know  what  role  to  assume  or  what 
kind  of  a  speech  to  make,  so  I  concluded  that  I  would 
take  that  of  an  humble  discoverer.     You  may  think 

92  tlTije  Jf  unction  of  tije  ^tate  Wini\itviitp 

that  a  pretty  lofty  one,  but  I  assure  you  it  is  not.  We 
say  Columbus  was  a  great  discoverer.  He  tried  to  go 
to  China — he  stopped  at  the  West  Indies.  But  my 
discoveries  have  been  of  the  brains  of  great  men." 
Describing  his  meeting  in  Asheville,  at  the  age  of 
eighteen  with  a  young  man  the  same  age,  he  said :  "I 
found  him  possessed  of  wonderful  wit  and  acquaint- 
ance with  the  great  classics — the  Bible,  Shakspere,  and 
Scott's  novels.  His  name  had  never  been  heard  east 
of  the  Blue  Ridge.  I  reported  to  my  friends  in  Chapel 
Hill  that  a  great  man  was  growing  up  in  the  West."  It 
was  Zebulon  Baird  Vance.  Continuing  his  narrative 
of  discovery.  Dr.  Battle  said:  "A  few  years  ago  I 
heard  that  a  young  assistant  professor  had  come  to 
town.  He  had  a  name  much  honored  in  North  Caro- 
lina and  elsewhere,  and  as  he  was  nephew  of  a  valued 
friend  of  mine,  with  whom  I  had  been  often  thrown  as 
a  co-fighter  for  education,  Alex.  Graham,  I  called  on 
him  at  once.  ...  I  found  an  acuteness  of  intel- 
lect, varied  learning,  advanced  and  wise  views  of 
educational,  economic  and  other  needs  of  our  people, 
together  with  thoughtful  and  clear  utterance,  and 
rare  courtesy  of  manner.  I  saw  that  the  young  man 
was  presidential  timber."  It  was  Edward  Kidder 
Graham.  "Now,  Mr.  Chairman!"  exclaimed  Dr.  Bat- 
tle, "Was  not  I  a  discoverer?" 


Dr.  Venable  brought  the  greetings  of  the  past  execu- 
tive to  the  present :  "I  rejoice  to  see  this  day.  I  re- 
joice in  behalf  of  my  dear  friend,  the  staunch  and  loyal 
supporter  of  my  administration,  Edward  Kidder  Gra- 
ham.   I  rejoice  on  my  own  behalf,  for  the  burden  of 

W^t  ?S[niber£Sitj>  of  i^ort!)  Carolina  93 

responsibility  and  care  which  had  grown  too  heavy  for 
my  strength  is  now  rolled  off.  I  rejoice  in  behalf  of 
the  University  for  I  see  before  it  from  this  day  a 
growth  and  development  and  increase  of  usefulness 
which  no  prophet  here  can  measure  or  place  limitations 

Dr.  Venable  then  contrasted  the  University  of  the 
past  and  the  present.  He  recalled  the  fact  that  35 
years  ago  there  were  only  150  students  here,  but  "out 
of  this  small  number  came  our  honored  Toastmaster, 
the  Governor  of  the  State,  a  President  of  the  Uni- 
versity here,  our  Superintendent  of  Public  Instruction, 
a  Bishop  of  the  Episcopal  Church,  and  Aycock  and 
Mclver  who  have  gone  on  before."  Dr.  Venable 
stated  that  he  was  proud  of  the  fact  that  only  three 
other  men  had  exceeded  his  length  of  service,  and  that 
in  six  years  more  he  would  hold  the  record  of  the 
longest  continuous  service  in  the  University.  He  ex- 
pressed his  gratitude  to  the  people  of  the  State  that 
the  opportunity  of  serving  the  State  had  been  granted 
him,  since  more  of  the  youth  of  the  State  had  been 
entrusted  to  his  care  than  to  any  other  professor. 

Dr.  Venable  concluded  by  propounding  a  conun- 
drum to  Secretary  Daniels :  "Where  would  our  Toast- 
master's  big  university  be  if  this  University  had  not 
supplied  the  president  of  it  ?" 

(Secretary  Daniels:  "Better  than  that,  this  Uni- 
versity educated  James  K.  Polk,  who  as  president  of 
the  United  States  established  a  Naval  Academy  at 

94  Wi)t  Jf  wnction  of  t^e  ^tate  Wini\itv^itv 


Dr.  Miller  brought  greetings  on  behalf  of  the  Ameri- 
can Chemical  Society.  He  offered  "congratulations  to 
Dr.  Edward  Graham  on  his  elevation  to  the  presidency 
of  the  University  of  North  Carolina;  to  Dr.  Charles 
Herty  on  his  election  to  the  presidency  of  the  Ameri- 
can Chemical  Society;  and  to  Dr.  Francis  Venable  on 
recovering  his  liberty  after  many  years  of  devoted 
service  to  the  State.  Dr.  Miller  was  the  bearer  of 
official  greetings  from  the  President  of  the  University 
of  Toronto.  "May  I  hope,  sir,"  he  said  in  conclu- 
sion, "that  this  first  official  communication  between 
these  institutions  may  not  be  the  last,  for  though  sepa- 
rated by  many  miles  and  situated  in  very  different  sur- 
roundings, the  two  universities  are  pursuing  the  same 
ideals,  by  the  same  businesslike  and  efficient  methods." 


Miss  Reilly,  who  was  accorded  a  particularly  cor- 
dial reception,  brought  greetings  from  Bryn  Mawr  and 
from  the  women's  colleges  of  the  country.  "All  our 
educational  institutions,"  she  said,  "are  so  closely 
bound  together  that  in  congratulating  you  we  seem 
also  to  congratulate  ourselves  on  the  long  historical 
past  of  this  University  and  on  the  splendid  future  that 
is  before  it.  In  the  original  act  authorizing  this  Uni- 
versity there  is  a  very  wise  sentence :  'It  is  the  duty 
of  every  legislator  to  consult  the  happiness  of  the  ris- 
ing generation.'  The  legislatures  and  authorities  have 
most  surely  succeeded  in  carrying  out  this  duty.  All 
the  tribute  which  has  been  paid  today,  all  the  history 
which  has  been  told,  show  that  the  University  has  con- 

Cfje  ^niberfiiitp  of  Movtf)  Carolina  95 

suited   the   happiness    of   the   generations   that   have 


Dr.  C.  Alphonso  Smith  deHvered  the  congratula- 
tions of  the  Modern  Language  Association.  "The 
thought  that  has  been  increasingly  with  me  from  the 
very  beginning  of  these  exercises,  is  that  the  Uni- 
versity of  North  Carolina  has  today  not  only  inaugu- 
rated a  new  president  but  inaugurated  a  new  and  wider 
educational  policy.  The  very  concept  of  the  state  uni- 
versity as  an  educational  agency  is  undergoing  a  sea- 
change  to  something  richer  and  rarer.  The  strangest 
fact  presented  by  the  history  of  education  in  the 
South,  is,  to  my  mind  the  slow  evolution  of  the  state 
university  as  a  distinct  kind  of  university.  This  evo- 
lution can  best  be  studied  in  the  South  because  the 
South  originated  the  state  university  idea."  He  then 
sketched  the  progress  of  the  idea  through  three  stages. 
The  first  he  called  the  'pinnacle'  or  aristocratic  theory ; 
the  second  the  'keystone'  theory,  marking  the  first  step 
in  the  democratization  of  education  by  making  the  uni- 
versity the  keystone  in  the  educational  system  of  the 
state ;  and  third  the  'dynamic'  theory,  when  the  univer- 
sity becomes  a  great  dynamo  to  release  and  transmit 
the  forces  of  the  state  and  the  nation. 

Dr.  Smith  declared  his  belief  that  the  history  of  the 
University  of  North  Carolina  best  illustrated  the  inter- 
change of  these  progressive  ideals,  and  offered  in  con- 
clusion this  sentiment :  "The  University  of  North 
Carolina,  once  the  oldest,  now  the  youngest  state  uni- 

96  tKfje  jTunttion  of  ttje  ^tate  Winibttaitp 


Mr.  John  Blair,  Superintendent  of  the  Wilmington 
Public  Schools,  speaking  as  the  representative  of  the 
City  and  State  School  Superintendents,  brought  hearty- 
greetings.  He  spoke  in  hearty  appreciation  of  the 
University  men  with  whom  he  had  been  associated 
in  his  work,  and  of  the  educational  system  'inherited' 
from  the  University,  reminding  the  audience  of  the 
fact  that  it  was  "a  young  man  from  the  city  of  Wil- 
mington, Hinton  James,  who  walked  all  the  way  to 
Chapel  Hill  from  that  seaport  town  and  matriculated 
as  the  first  student  of  this  University."  In  conclusion 
Mr.  Blair  added  greetings  from  the  City  of  Wilming- 
ton: "I  presume,  Mr.  Toastmaster,  that  you  called 
upon  me  because  I  have  the  honor  of  representing  the 
only  available  naval  base  in  the  borders  of  North  Caro- 
lina. .  .  .  It  is  my  very  great  pleasure  to  bring 
to  you  greetings  from  our  chief  seaport  town." 

PRESIDENT  D.  H.  Ulhh 

Dr.  D.  H.  Hill,  in  delivering  the  greetings  of  the 
A.  &  M.  College,  related  a  tradition  of  the  Catawba 
Indians.  After  describing  the  symbolic  ceremony  of 
inducting  a  new  chief  into  office  by  presenting  a  basket 
containing  earth,  salt  and  meal,  Dr.  Hill  continued, 
"With  cordial  esteem  I  present  you.  President  Gra- 
ham, on  the  day  that  you  are  inducted  into  office,  an 
imaginary  basket,  containing  the  three  primal  ele- 
ments used  by  the  Indians.  The  earth  typifies  the 
hope  of  your  friends  that  you  will  improve  from  year 
to  year  the  physical  equipment  of  the  great  University 
confided  to  your  care.  The  salt  is  to  signify  the  ex- 
pectation that  you,  while  pressing   forward  to  new 

Cte  ZHnitiersiitp  of  ^rtfj  Carolina  97 

achievements,  will  preserve  in  students  and  faculty  the 
high  traditions,  the  manly  virtues,  the  robust  thought, 
the  admirable  democracy  that  has  made  the  University 
a  nursery  of  men.  The  meal  is  emblematic  of  the  con- 
viction that  you  will  seek  to  add  to  the  mental  sub- 
sistence of  the  young  men  confided  to  your  leadership 
such  broad  conceptions  of  duty,  such  intense  patriot- 
ism, such  clear  ideals  of  a  citizen's  responsibilities  that 
every  graduate  of  the  University  will  enter  life  conse- 
crated to  service." 


Dr.  Nitze,  who  brought  congratulations  from  the 
University  of  Chicago  in  person,  related  the  story  of 
the  American  who  told  an  Englishman  that  George 
Washington  had  thrown  a  penny  across  the  Delaware 
River.  "Ah!"  said  the  Englishman,  "That's  impossi- 
ble. No  man  could  do  that."  "But,"  said  the  Ameri- 
can, "you  forget  that  in  that  day  a  penny  went  a  great 
deal  further  than  it  does  today."  In  our  college  and 
university  work,  words  used  to  go  a  great  deal  further 
than  they  do  today,  and  it  is  most  gratifying,  there- 
fore, that  a  university  with  the  prestige  of  the  Uni- 
versity of  North  Carolina  has  seen  fit  to  choose  as  its 
president  a  professor  of  English  literature.  "In 
bringing  to  this  University  the  greetings  of  the  Uni- 
versity of  Chicago,  I  bring  to  you  in  particular  the 
congratulations  of  our  English  department." 


Dr.  Baskerville  offered  congratulations  on  behalf  of 
the  New  York  Academy  of  Science,  and  of  the  College 
of  the  City  of  New  York.    He  spoke  in  terms  of  affec- 

98  Ctie  ^Function  of  ti^e  ^tate  WinMx^itp 

tion  of  his  old  days  as  a  student  and  as  a  professor  at 
the  University  of  North  Carolina.  "Whatever  I  have 
done  in  my  work  as  a  chemist  is  due  in  large  measure 
to  my  training  at  the  University  under  the  guidance  of 
Dr.  Venable,"  he  said,  and  concluded  with  graceful 
felicitations  to  the  new  president  and  congratulations 
to  the  University  and  the  State. 

HON.  T.  w.  bicki;tt 
After  a  humorous  preamble,  Mr.  Bickett  announced : 
"On  this  day  there  has  been  launched  a  big  unit  in  the 
forces  that  make  for  civilization,  a  unit  that  I  believe 
is  divinely  commissioned  to  upbuild  in  this  common- 
wealth a  kingdom  whose  power  and  whose  glory  shall 
be  the  cunning  hand  and  the  cultured  brain.  I  congratu- 
late the  people  of  North  CaroHna  that  the  president  of 
this  University  brings  to  his  office  a  sympathetic  inter- 
pretation of  the  thought  of  all  the  people  of  the  State, 
an  abiding  faith  in  the  fundamental  excellence  of  the 
average  man,  and  a  heart  that  is  more  quickly  stirred 
by  the  aspirations  of  the  men  in  the  fields,  in  the 
streets,  and  in  the  shops  than  by  the  thunder  of  the 
captains  and  the  shouting.  I  think  that  this  interpreta- 
tion, this  thought  and  this  feeling  constitute  his  call 
and  his  commission  and  afford  the  surest  guarantee  of 
the  wise  beneficence  of  his  administration," 


Dr.  Mims  delivered  the  congratulations  of  Vander- 
bilt  University.  His  opening  words  were  expressive 
of  his  love  of  North  Carolina  and  for  the  University. 
After  a  personal  tribute  of  affection  to  the  new  presi- 

turtle  Winihtvsiitp  of  i^ortfj  Carolina  99 

dent,  Dr.  Mims  expressed  rejoicing  in  the  honor  be- 
stowed upon  him. 

"I  beheve,"  said  Dr.  Mims,  "that  this  man  is  destined 
to  throw  Hght  on  the  most  important  problem  that  is 
before  the  American  educational  world  today,  the  de- 
velopment of  the  college  of  liberal  arts."  Continuing, 
Dr.  Mims  expressed  the  belief  that  the  professional 
school  is  well  established  but  that  we  have  no  clear 
idea  of  what  the  modern  college  should  be.  Declaring 
the  beloved  Dr.  Graham  to  be  the  living  incarnation  of 
the  typical  product  of  the  modern  American  college, 
he  expressed  faith  in  his  power  to  solve  the  problem. 
"What  is  expected  of  a  college  man  today?"  proceeded 
Dr.  Mims.  "Are  the  men  coming  out  of  our  colleges 
more  thoughtful  men?  I  believe  that  loose  thinking  is 
as  dangerous  as  loose  living  and  that  right  thinking  is 
as  essential  as  right  living.  What  do  our  college  men 
think  about  today?  What  do  they  talk  about?  Do 
they  know  a  good  man  when  they  see  him,  a  good  book, 
a  good  job  when  they  face  it  ?  I  believe  the  most  hope- 
ful thing  about  this  institution  is  that  the  college  of 
liberal  arts  is  such  a  fundamental  part  of  the  institution 
that  this  new  president  is  going  to  interpret  anew  in  the 
lives  of  these  students,  what  culture  means,  what 
scholarship  means,  and  what  a  wise  man  who  comes 
out  of  our  colleges  ought  to  be." 


After  a  number  of  reminiscences  of  the  days  of  the 
University  reopening,  Mr.  Manning  concluded :  "There 
were  behind  that  reopening  of  this  University  men  in 
North  Carolina  devoted  not  only  to  the  State  but  to 
the  institution,  men  whose  courage  and  faith  in  the 

100  ^f)c  Jf  unction  of  tije  ^tate  ^nibetsiitp 

State  had  been  tested.  ...  It  was  an  auspicious 
day.  It  betokened  the  awakening  of  a  great  peo- 
ple. .  .  .  We  see  today  something  of  the  result 
of  the  dreams  of  these  men. 

"I  congratulate  you,  Mr.  President,  that  you  take 
charge  of  an  institution  that  is  not  an  infant  but  a 
giant  reveling  in  its  strength,  ready  to  serve,  equipped 
to  serve,  and  willing  to  serve." 


From  9:00  to  11 :00  o'clock  in  the  evening  the  Uni- 
versity entertained  its  guests  at  a  reception  given  in 
the  Bynum  Gymnasium. 


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